Best Orthopaedic Doctors in Kolkata - AMRI Hospitals

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Home / Speciality / Orthopaedics and Joint Replacement
Available Treatment Facilities

  •  Trauma Surgery
  • Joint and Spine Replacement
  • Reconstruction Procedures
  •  Arthroscopy
  •  Sports Medicine
  • Paediatric surgery
  • Deformity correction

Best Orthopaedic Doctors in Kolkata and Bhubaneswar

Offering world-class orthopedic care, AMRI Hospitals is renowned for its highly experienced and skilled joint replacement surgeons, and sport injury specialists who use state of the art technologies and advanced techniques to deliver reliable and high-quality treatment. Our orthopedic surgeons focus on providing comprehensive and effective solutions based on observation and precise diagnosis of common orthopedic problems. Our dedicated team of best orthopedics specialists usetheir observation, experience, knowledge and realistic approach for complex procedures. At AMRI, we take pride in the latest Arthroscopic, Reconstructive and Minimally invasive techniques for treating sports and joint injuries. Our specially designed physiotherapy units offer excellent rehabilitation and pain management facilities using modern & accessible equipment for speedy recovery.

Leading Edge Expertise

  • Advanced Trauma Care and support  Sports Injury Management
  • Joint Replacement – KNEE, HIP, SHOULDER
  •  Reconstruction surgery - Ligament
  •  Arthroscopy with ACL Reconstruction
  •  Geriatric Orthopaedics viz: Management of Arthritis
  •  Special clinic for Paediatric Surgeries viz: Deformity Correction
  • Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteo Arthritis & Juvenile Arthritis


• High standard implants for improved motion and minimum wear process • Ensuring short hospital stay and quicker return to normal life • Excellent multi-disciplinary support of doctors


Arthritis may not have a cure yet, but new treatment methods are getting better and better at providing long-term relief. For patients suffering from severe knee pain caused by osteoarthritis, robotic knee replacement surgery is able to offer relief with shorter recovery times and longer-lasting results.

What Is Robotic Knee Surgery?

Robotic surgery does not mean that an actual robot performs the entire surgery. Instead, doctors use a robotic surgical arm to execute parts of the procedure, assisting in areas that demand the steadiest hand and navigating small places. Robotics becomes another tool in the doctor’s kit. The robotic arm can work from 3D images of the surgical area and perform a range of tasks, such as: Prepare the bone. Introduce the implant. Balance the implant. Check for the right fit. Advantages of Robotic Knee Surgery Robotic knee surgery has already established itself as a powerful tool for doctors. The medical community has seen advantages in several areas:
Lower Long-Term Costs:
Patients who get robotic knee replacement surgery tend to have fewer complications, which means fewer return visits to the hospital. You will also have a quicker recovery time, meaning you can get back to your job and earning money faster. Also, minimally invasive surgery results in fewer infections and other risks that can send a patient back to the hospital.
Better Patient Outcomes:
Studies have shown that patients receiving robotic knee surgery experience fewer readmissions to the hospital. They also require less rehabilitation than patients who undergo traditional knee replacement surgery. Robotic arms can rid surgical areas of diseased bone tissue more effectively, too, improving the recovery rate of patients.
Higher Patient Satisfaction:
Patients can return to their daily activities faster, which translates to higher patient satisfaction with their health care services. Robotic knee surgery requires less downtime for the patient, which is something they will appreciate. Patients also like the precision of using the arm. There are fewer chances for mistakes with this careful approach. The implant can be aligned and adjusted more carefully, which increases the patient’s comfort. Finding the most effective option is always the aim of any surgery. People value the combination of robotic precision with the actual surgeon’s skills of the operation. Overall, robotic surgery combined with good surgical experience shows a distinct advantage over conventional knee replacement methods as it offers more precision, better results, faster recovery, and a high-performance implant use.

Diseases & Procedures
Diseases | Procedures
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reset
Shoulder pain

Shoulder Pain 

The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint made of three main bones: the humerus (long arm bone), the clavicle (collarbone), and the scapula (known as the shoulder blade). Shoulder makes maximum movement in a human body. A pain in the shoulder may occur due to several factors. It can be painful and restrict mobility that may have animpact on daily life activities.

Usually, shoulder problems belong to the following major categories: 

  • Tendon inflammation (bursitis or tendinitis) or tendon tear
  • Instability
  • Arthritis
  • Fracture (broken bone)

Often, tumors, infection and nerve-related issues also create shoulder pain.


Initially, a doctor will try to determine the cause of a shoulder pain by asking questions with a focus on the patient’s medical history along with a physical examination. Finally some confirmatory tests will be prescribed to start the treatment process. 
X-rays, MRI and Ultrasound imaging are the most common clinical test ordered by a medical professional in detecting the cause of a shoulder pain.  
Computed tomography (CT) scan, Electrical studies, Arthrogram or Arthroscopy are the other lab tests usually ordered when detailed view of the bones or nerves and muscles are required to make a diagnosis.  

Activity Changes
This is physical therapy which involves rest, altering activities, and certain exercises that may relieve the pain and slowly improvethe strength of joints in the shoulder and flexibility as well. 
There are several medications that help control inflammation and pain. Sometimes injections of medicines that makes the shoulder numb or steroids are used to relieve pain.
Most of the times patients respond to medication and the physical therapy. In rare cases surgery is required to resolve shoulder problems. 

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Joint pain

Joint Pain 
Joint Pain is a condition that develops discomfort at the joints or the meeting points of two or more bones. Joint Pain can be mild or severe that may affect movability. Usually it appears in the hands, feet, knees, shoulder and spine. 
Symptoms of joint pains include:

  • Pain in the joint 
  • Stiffness 
  • Numbness 
  • Swelling 
  • Reddish and hot joint
  • Difficulty in making movements

The common causes of joint pains include:

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis 
  • Gout 
  • Bursitis
  • Tendinitis
  • Injuries
  • Overuse of muscle in the affected area
  • Overweight 
  • Poor health condition
  • Anxiety and depression

Treatment and care for joint pain include:

  • Medication – This include oral medicines to relieve pain, anti-inflammatory drugs and pain relieving jails also. 
  • Dietary plan – This include implementing supplements that may help in relieving pain and reducing weight.
  • Additional support- To improve the condition doctors may order brace, cane or orthopaedic supporting devices that can be used in the shoes.   

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Heel pain

Heel pain is a common foot problem. Pain usually occurs at the bottom of the heel (plantar fasciitis)  or just behind it (Achilles tendinitis). Sometimes it can affect the side of the heel also. Heel pain may make walking uncomfortable. 
Pain usually starts gradually, with no injury to the affected area. It is often triggered by wearing a flat shoe. Home care such as rest, ice, proper-fitting footwear and foot supports are often enough to bring relief. 

Causes of heel pain include:

  • Achilles tendinitis
  • Achilles tendon rupture
  • Bone tumor
  • Bursitis (joint inflammation)
  • Haglund's deformity
  • Heel spur
  • Osteomyelitis (a bone infection)
  • Paget's disease of bone
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (inflammatory joint disease)
  • Sarcoidosis (collections of inflammatory cells in the body)
  • Stress fractures
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Heel pain symptoms vary depending on the cause. Some symptoms are:

  • Pain
  • Pain after standing from a resting/sitting position.
  • Stiffness
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Bony growth on the heel

Risk Factors
The following factors enhances the chance to develop heel pain:

  • Anything that puts a lot of pressure and strain on one’s foot 
  • Obesity
  • Foot and ankle arthritis, flat feet or high foot arches.
  • Over straining one’s legs for sports or other exercise.
  • Spend a lot of time standing, especially on concrete floors.
  • Wear improperly fitted shoes without arch support and/or cushion.

Mainly X ray is advised but in certain cases CT Scan or MRI.

Most problems that cause heel pain get better over time with nonsurgical treatments. Therapies focus on easing pain and inflammation, improving foot flexibility and minimizing stress and strain on the heel. 
The  treatments include:
•    Injections: Steroid injections to lessen pain and swelling. 
•    Orthotic devices: Over-the-counter or custom-made shoe inserts (orthotics) can take pressure off the heel. The patient needs supportive shoes for everyday wear and exercise.
•    Pain relievers:  Along  with ice packs to  ease pain and swelling.
•    Physical therapy: Massage, physical therapy and ultrasound therapy can break up soft tissue adhesions. 
•    Stretching exercises: These kind of exercises might help 
•    Taping: Patient can  use athletic or medical tape to support the foot arch or heel.

In order to prevent heel pain or keep pain from returning, it’s important to keep one’s foot and heel tendons flexible. One should stretch regularly and wear properly fitted, supportive shoes. Runners are especially prone to heel pain. 

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Ulnar wrist pain

Ulnar wrist pain is a common sign of many different injuries and medical conditions. Common signs and symptoms of ulnar wrist pain include pain on the pinkie-finger side of the wrist, clicking noise in the wrist associated with sharp pain with movement.
Ulnar wrist pain is pain on the side of your wrist opposite the thumb. This pain can vary, depending on the cause. It may worsen when you grip something or twist your wrist. Ulnar wrist pain can be hard to diagnose because it can be linked to many different types of injuries.

A common cause of ulnar wrist pain is a fall onto an outstretched hand. This can break bones in the wrist. Sports like tennis, golf, and football can sometimes bend the wrist back too far and this can damage tendons and ligaments. Carpenters and plumbers may develop ulnar wrist pain because they have to use tools in small spaces that require awkward positioning of the wrist.

Usually one feels an aching dull pain near the pinky side of the wrist or a sharp, short -lasting pain when moving the wrist in certain directions. Swelling and bruising may be present after an injury, and numbness and tingling in the fingers may signal a nerve problem.

To diagnose the of ulnar wrist pain, physical examination including hand movement  into different positions is done. Imaging tests like CT and MRI scans also may be needed.

Treatment for some types of ulnar wrist pain may include surgery. Minimally invasive techniques may be used to speed up the recovery.

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Trigger finger

Trigger Finger
Trigger finger is a typical condition in which a finger gets stuck in a bent position. It may then straighten with a snap. It hampers flexibility and ability to perform daily life activities. This is more common in women and usually it becomes worse in the morning. 
Trigger finger may initially start with mild symptoms and become severe. The common signs include the following complains:

  • Finger stiffness, especially in the morning
  • Discomfort inmaking finger movement
  • Tenderness or a nodule in the palm at the base of the affected finger
  • Finger locking in a bent position, which pops out straight after sometimes
  • Sometimes the affected finger becomes locked in a bent position, and do not straighten out on its own.

In human body there are tendons or fibrous cods that attach the muscles with the bones. These tendons are covered by sheaths. Inflammation of the tendon’s protective sheath in a finger causes trigger finger.  
Activities or hobbies that require repetitive gripping or diabetes are the main cause that develops a trigger finger.  
Doctors detect a trigger finger by asking questions to the patient about the symptoms and the medical history. A physical check-up is also essential to find out the nature of difficulty in moving the affected finger and if there is any lump in the palm. A patient might need to go through a blood test to determine the sugar level. 
Doctors may ask the patient to take a break from those activities which may cause trigger finger. Anti-inflammatory medications and in severe cases steroid injections are the common treatment processes of trigger finger. If nothing works then surgery can be the only option. 

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Torn meniscus

Torn Meniscus is a common injury that is developed by a sudden and forceful twist that tears the meniscus a c shaped rubbery, shock-absorbing cartilage between the shinbone and thigh bone. 
The symptoms of Torn Meniscus include: 

  • Pain around the knee
  • Difficulty in moving and folding leg
  • Feeling of knee has been locked 
  • Popping sensation 
  • Swelling 

Any activity that demands forceful twisting or rotation of the knee may cause this condition. Lifting heavy weight or taking part in different sports can sometimes lead to tearing of tissues around the knee.  At old age when degeneration naturally sets in torn meniscus may occur without any trauma also. 
To diagnose torn meniscus, doctors physically check a patient and ask questions to find out the lifestyle conditions and medical history. To confirm it the following tests are prescribe: 

  • X-ray 
  • MRI 
  • Arthroscopy  

To treat ‘Torn Meniscus’ in a patient doctors usually follow the below mentioned processes: 

  • Rest: Complete rest is the best method to manage and heal this condition.  
  • Ice: Cold pack works very well in controlling pain and swelling 
  • Medication: Over the counter pain reliving medicines are used to keep the pain under control 
  • Physical therapy: Physical exercise and programs help to regain movability 
  • Surgery: In certain cases surgery is ordered if no other treatment measures work effectively. Usually surgery is planned in children and young adult patients.     

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Tendinitis is a condition of tendon inflammation after a tendon injury. Tendon is the thick fibrous cord that attach muscle to bone. Its symptoms include joint pain, stiffness, and difficulty to move a joint. Tendinitis can occur in any tendon, but it's most common around  the shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels. Some tendinitis problems are: Tennis elbow, Golfer's elbow, Pitcher's shoulder and Swimmer's shoulder.
Most cases of tendinitis can be successfully managed with rest, physical therapy and medications. If it is severe and leads to the rupture of a tendon, surgery will be necessary.


  • Dull ache, which aggravates when moving the affected limb or joint
  • Tenderness
  • Mild swelling

•    Although tendinitis can be caused by a sudden injury, but often the condition occurs due to repetition of a particular movement over time. Most people develop tendinitis because their occupation or hobbies involve repetitive motions, which put stress on the tendons. Sports persons like Tennis players, painters, carpenters, machine operators develop this complication.



  • Without proper treatment, tendinitis can increase the risk of tendon rupture, a much more serious condition requiring surgery.
  • If tendon irritation persists for several weeks or months, a condition known as Tendinosis may develop. This involves degenerative changes in the tendon, along with abnormal new blood vessel growth.

Usually it  is diagnosed by physical exam alone. But X-rays or other imaging tests may be required to rule out the possibility of other diseases.


The goals of tendinitis treatment are to relieve your pain and reduce inflammation. Often self care of tendinitis is  adequate, like taking rest, ice compression and pain relievers.
Main options are

  • Medication including pain relievers, Cortico steroids, Platelet-rich Plasma(PRP)
  • Physical Therapy
  • Surgery and other procedures including dry needling, ultrasonic treatment and surgery.

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Soft Tissue injuries

Soft Tissue injuries 

Soft Tissue Injuries result from trauma occurred to muscles, tendons or ligaments. Commonly, sprains and other muscle damages take place during sports and physical activities. It may occur from a sudden fall or sharp twist also. Regardless of source soft tissue injuries can vary in severity from mild to moderate to severe level. 


Soft tissue injuries are of following types:

  • Sprains of ankle or wrist  
  • Strains
  • Contusions
  • Tendonitis
  • Bursitis


Main symptoms of soft tissue injuries include:

  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Tenderness
  • Inability to put weight on that injured joint


Rest and Ice compression and elevation is good for healing in soft tissue injuries. Pain relieving medications and injections may help control inflammation and discomfort.    

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Shin splints

Shin Splints

Shin Splints is a painful condition that causes inflammation along the shinbone, muscles, tendons and tissues adjacent to tibia in the lower leg. It is a common health issue in athletes, runners and dancers.


The signs of Shin Splints include:

  • Pain along the large bone in the front of lower leg
  • Feeling of soreness and tenderness
  • Mild swelling of the lower leg
  • In initially pain stops in rest
  • But pain slowly aggravates to stress reaction


Shin Splints results from over exercise and continuous stress on shin bone and the tissues that attach muscles to this bone. Other conditions that help developing this disease include:

  • Flat feet
  • Using shoes that do not fit well
  • Weakness of ankle, hip or core muscles
  • Working without warm up or cool down stretches.
  • Intensifying or changing exercise schedule





Usually, doctors diagnose Shin Splints by checking medical history of the patient and considering the existing signs and symptoms. However, to confirm this disease they might order imaging tests like X-ray or MRI.


To treat Shin Splints doctors usually refer a combination of the following:

  • Rest: taking a break from regular physical activities like sports or dance.
  • Cold compress: Ice works will in reversing swelling and pain
  • Medication: pain relieving medicines effectively controls pain
  • Comfortable shoes: Introducing well fit shoes with shoe inserts
  • Physical Therapy: This helps the patient returning to normal life 

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Septic arthritis

Septic Arthritis
Septic arthritis is a painful condition in a joint  that develops from germs which travel through the bloodstream from another part of the body. Septic arthritis can  occur when a penetrating injury, such as an animal bite or trauma, delivers germs directly into the joint.
Infants and aged persons usually develop septic arthritis. People having artificial joints are also at risk. Knees are most commonly affected, but septic arthritis can affect hips, shoulders and other joints. The infection can rapidly and severely damage the cartilage and bone within the joint, so prompt treatment is very important. Treatment involves draining the joint with a needle or during surgery. 

  • Extreme discomfort and difficulty using the affected joint
  • The joint could be swollen, red and warm
  • Fever

Septic arthritis can be caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infections. Bacterial infection is the most common cause.  Septic arthritis can develop when an infection, such as a skin infection or urinary tract infection, spreads through the bloodstream to a joint. Less commonly, a puncture wound, drug injection, or surgery in or near a joint — including joint replacement surgery — can give the germs entry into the joint space.

  • Blood test
  • Joint fluid test
  • Imaging tests

Treatment options usually include joint drainage, antibiotics and in some cases surgery.

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Rotator cuff injury

Rotator Cuff Injury
Rotator Cuff Injury causes tear of group of muscles and tendons around the shoulder. This develops pain in the shoulder which aggravates with the movement of the arm away from the body.  
Symptoms of rotator cuff injury includes:

  • Pain in the shoulder and arm 
  • Difficulty in raising hand 
  • Increased pain at night
  • Clicking sound or sensation while raising arm 
  • Feeling of more pain when arm is at rest 
  • Shoulder weakness 
  • Inability to lift objects  

Usually, an injury to the shoulder causes rotator cuff disease. Degeneration or tear of tendon tissues around the shoulder may develop this condition. Lifting heavy weight on regular basis and repetitive overhead activities increases the chance of having this disease. 
Doctors initially, diagnose rotator cuff injury by conducting physical check-up, noting down medical history. To confirm it imaging tests like X-ray, MRI and Ultrasound tests are often prescribed. 
Treatment process of rotator cuff injury includes: 

  • Taking rest
  • Applying hot and cold compress
  • Taking pain relievers
  • Exercise and physical therapy 
  • Injecting cortisone or steroid in the affected area. 

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Rickets is common in children especially in developmental countries. This is a skeletal disorder caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. In this disease bones becomes weak and soft which hampers growth. In severe cases, deformities of skeletal is noticed. Usually it sets in between 6 months to 36 months age. 


  • Pain or tenderness in the bones of various parts in the body.
  • Stunted growth 
  • Weakness of bone 
  • Muscle cramps
  • Teeth deformities like delay in tooth formation
  • Holes, abscesses or defects in the tooth structure
  • Considerable number of cavities
  • Skeletal deformities including a curved spine

Doctors diagnose rickets by physical examination. In addition to this, they are likely to order the following tests that may help diagnose rickets. 

  • Blood tests to detect calcium and phosphate levels in the blood.
  • X-rays to find out bone deformities.
  • In very rare cases, a bone biopsy is prescribed.  

Replenishing vitamin D, Calcium and phosphates in the body is the only solution in fighting this disease. Once the level of these missing minerals become higher in the blood the symptoms automatically go away. In a vitamin D deficiency, doctors will suggest a diet rich in vitamin, and calcium. Often supplementary foods are also prescribed to provide balanced and nutritious food intake. 
Doctors also suggest increased exposure to sunlightwhich is good for developing Vitamin D. 
In case of skeletal deformities the child may need braces as corrective measure to bone development. In severe conditionsa patient may need a corrective surgery.
In case of hereditary rickets, treatment may include a combination of phosphate supplements along with high levels of a special form of vitamin D. 

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic Fever
Rheumatic fever occurs if infections like Scarlet Fever or Strep Throat is not treated with proper attention and care. It is an inflammatory disease that affectsmany vital organs like the heart, brain, joints and skin also. 
Here are the common signs and symptoms of Rheumatic Fever:

  • Fever
  • Painand tenderness in the joints 
  • Joint pain usually migrates from one to another joint
  • Joints get red, hot and swollen
  • Small and painless bumps develop beneath the skin
  • Chest pain with heart murmur
  • Fatigue
  • Flat or often slightly raised, rashes 
  • Jerky and uncontrolled body movements in the hands, feet or face
  • Unusual emotional behaviour.

Incomplete treatment of bacterial infections like Scarlet Fever or Strep Throat is identified as the main cause of Rheumatic Fever. Beside this, family history, type of strep bacteria and environmental factors like over-crowded areas, poor sanitation system and other hygienic issues can also increase the chance of transmission of strep bacteria.     
To detect Rheumatic Fever, swab is collected from throat for rapid strep test and throat culture test. In Rapid strep test result is found within 10 minutes. If further assessment is needed the doctors may order blood tests and heart tests such as Electrocardiogram or Echocardiogram.  
Treatment of Rheumatic Fever focuses on killing the bacterial infection first. Antibiotic medications are prescribed to get rid of the bacteria. At the next level, Anti-inflammatory medications are prescribed to control the inflammation in the body. Other therapies are suggested to treat various complications as per the patient’s health conditions. 

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Ligament Injuries

Ligament Injuries

Ligaments or the fibrous tissues are the key elements in human joints. It connects bones to cartilage and maintain bone to bone connections. Ligaments also keep the bones in alignments. Tear in ligaments is common in players. It may occur in common people too from a sudden fall or shock. 


Extreme pain immediately after the injury and inability to make movement of the affected body part are the main symptoms of a ligament tear. Sometimes a tearing is felt or a pop sound is heard by the person who gets it. Ankle, knee and wrist are the common locations where ligament injuries are common. Neck, back, and thumb are the other places where ligament injuries occur.


Extreme movements that move out the joint in an unusual position causes a ligament tear. Athletes often have ligament tears as their joints becomes exposed to injuries and falls. People who carry heavy weight, or get injured in an accident or experience a fall while a joint gets bent or moved in an extreme position face this condition.  


To detect a ligament injury a doctor first conducts a physical examination backed by a medical history search. By feeling the location the extent of injury is assessed. X-ray and MRI are the common tests which are usually prescribed to determine if it is a partial injury or a complete ligament tear.


Ligament tear makes the joint unstable. To recover such an injury the following methods are prescribed:

  • Rest: complete rest and break from activities that may stress the joint is the one of the best solution to tackle this.
  • Ice: using ice pack helps relieving pain and swelling also.
  • Compression: Wrapping the affected joint helps managing swelling. Sometimes it also works well in controlling pain.
  • Elevation: Lifting the injured body part controls swelling and helps recovering the injury.   

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Paget s disease of bone

Paget's disease of Bone
Paget's disease of bone is a chronic bone disorder disease that interferes with normal recycling process of human body and hampers the replacement of old bone tissues by new ones. This may make the bones fragile and misshapen.  Usually it occurs in the areas like the pelvis, spine, legs or skull.  This is a common disease which comes next to the most common disease osteoporosis. 
Many times Paget’s disease doesn’t show any sign of symptoms. Sometimes it gets diagnosed only after a fracture in a weakened bone. 
The most common symptoms include joint pain, swelling and tenderness of joints with redness of the skin in the affected area. 
The causes that develops Paget’s disease is not yet clear to researchers. But the chance of getting this disease becomes higher if it runs in the family. Some believe it has a relation with measles virus. If measles occurs in childhood it may change the bone formation process that may lead to Paget’s disease. 
Initially, doctors physically check the patient. In case Paget’s disease is suspected bone scan and blood test to determine excess alkaline phosphate are ordered.  To confirm the disease X-ray is prescribed. 
Paget’s disease cannot be fully cured. But treatment can keep it under control. Bisphosphonates, Calcium and Vitamin D are the most important medications used to treat this disease. Dietary management that supplements Calcium and Vitamin D also improve the condition and control the impact on the system. Exposure to sunlight is also recommended. 

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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, that affects a large number of people around the world. When the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones wears down Osteoarthritis begins. Osteoarthritis can damage any joint but the disorder most commonly affects joints in one’s hands, knees, hips and spine. Joint pain is the most common symptom. Osteoarthritis symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time.
Medication, physiotherapy and sometimes surgery  help reduce the pain and maintain joint movement.

  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Tenderness and swelling
  • Loss of flexibility
  • Grating sensation
  • Bone spurs


  • Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in the joints gradually deteriorates. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that enables nearly frictionless joint motion.
  • Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, bone will rub on bone.
  • Osteoarthritis has often been referred to as a wear and tear disease. But besides the breakdown of cartilage, osteoarthritis affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bone and deterioration of the connective tissues that hold the joint together and attach muscle to bone. It also causes inflammation of the joint lining.

Risk Factors

  • Older age
  • Gender 
  • Obesity
  • Joint injuries
  • Repeated stress on the joint.
  • Family history 
  • Bone deformities 
  • Certain metabolic diseases

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that worsens over time. Joint pain and stiffness can cause disability.
Often physical examination by the doctor helps in identifying the affected joint for tenderness, swelling  and immovbility.
Imaging tests

  • X-rays - Cartilage doesn't show up on X-ray images, but cartilage loss is revealed by a narrowing of the space between the bones in the joint. It can also show bone spurs around a joint.
  • MRI - An MRI uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of bone and soft tissues, including cartilage. An MRI isn't commonly needed to diagnose osteoarthritis but can help provide more information in complex cases.

Lab tests
Analyzing the blood or joint fluid can help confirm the diagnosis.

  • Blood tests -  Although there's no blood test for osteoarthritis, certain tests can help rule out other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Joint fluid analysis -  The fluid from the affected joint is tested to determine whether the pain is caused by gout or an infection rather than osteoarthritis.

There are different medications like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that can help relieve osteoarthritis symptoms include:

  • Physical therapy - A physical therapist can show you exercises to strengthen the muscles around the joint, increase flexibility and reduce pain
  • Occupational therapy - An occupational therapist can help the patient discover ways to do everyday tasks without putting extra stress on the painful joint
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) - This uses a low-voltage electrical current to relieve pain. It provides short-term relief.

Other options
 If conservative treatments cannot reduce the pain there are some other procedures for relief - 

  • Cortisone injections
  • Lubrication injections
  • Realigning bones by surgical procedure
  • Joint replacement surgery

Life style changes

  • Exercise -  Low impact exercise to increase endurance and strengthen the muscles around one’s joint. 
  • Reduce weight
  • Movement therapies. Tai chi and yoga might help reduce osteoarthritis pain and improve movement.

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Osgood Schlatter disease

Osgood Schlatterorosteochondrosisis a knee pain common in growing children. This disease develops a lump just below the knee, at the point where the kneecap joins the shinbone.  Usually, this occurs during the growth spurts of teenage. Children who regularly practice sport activities like jumping, running and playing volleyball, basketballor football are more likely to have this condition.

Symptoms of Osgood Schlatter include: 

  • Knee and leg pain 
  • Swelling and tenderness 
  • Increased warmth around the area of pain
  • Pain aggravates with exercise and physical activities

The cause of getting Osgood Schlatter is related with the growth of the muscles, bones and tendons in growing children. This growth and shift put stress and causes the pain. 

Doctors diagnose Osgood Schlatter by physically checking the patient and asking the symptoms. If needed imaging tests such as X-ray and MRI are common to order. Blood tests are often prescribed to rule out rheumatic conditions. 

To treatOsgood Schlatter, taking rest, elevation, applying ice and compressing by wrapping the knee are the best solutions. Massaging and taking over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may relieve the pain.   

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Kyphosis is a spinal condition. In people with kyphosis, the spine curves outward more than it should. It can make people look looked hunched or slouching. It can occur at any age but is most common in older women. Age-related kyphosis is often due to Osteoporosis. Some patients experience back pain and stiffness. Excessive curvature can affect posture and make standing difficult. Others may have no symptoms except an exaggerated forward rounding of the back. Treatment may include medication for pain, physiotherapy and sometimes surgery.

Types of kyphosis

The three most common types are postural kyphosis, Scheuermann’s kyphosis and congenital kyphosis.


Causes depend on the types of Kyphosis.

  • Postural: Poor posture, leaning back in chairs, carrying heavy bags.
  • Scheuermann’s: Problem in the spine’s structure.
  • Congenital: Problem that developed in the spine before birth.

Other causes include -

  • Age, since the spine starts to curve with ageing
  • Spinal injury.


The main symptom is having rounded shoulders or a hump in the upper back.

In more severe curve symptoms include:

  • Pain and stiffness in the back and shoulder blades.
  • Numb, weak tingling legs.
  • Getting exhausted easily.
  • Shortness of breath or breathing trouble due to the spine pressing against the airways.
  • Difficult to keep the balance
  • Loss of urinary or bowel control


  • Physical exam by the doctor
  • X-rays or CT scans to determine the degree of curvature and deformities of the vertebrae.  
  • MRI to detect infection or a tumor in the spine.
  • Nerve tests if the patient  has numbness or muscle weakness
  • Bone density tests


  • Medications
  • Therapies
  • Wearing of brace
  • Surgery in severe cases


Postural kyphosis can be prevented to some extent by being aware of the posture and taking care of the back. Like sitting upright, avoid carrying heavy school bag or other loads on the back, avoiding slouching and doing regular exercises that strengthen the back.


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Benign Bone Tumor

Benign Bone Tumor
Benign bone tumors are non-cancerous tumors that develop in a bone. Some of these benign tumors can cause growing pain and destroy bone. Treatment is the only way out to stop this condition. But often it may not require any treatment at all as it has no impact on patient. These types of harmless benign tumors usually grow on skull or the area around paranasal bones.  Usually benign bone tumors occur within the age of 20 to 30 years.  

Different types of benign bone tumors are there. The most common ones include:

  • Osteochondromas
  • Enchondroma
  • Nonossifying Fibroma Unicameral     
  • Fybroas displasya
  • Giant Cell Tumors    
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst

Symptoms of benign tumors are: 

  • Pain and swelling 
  • Visible growth 
  • Night sweats in some cases  
  • Fever in some cases 

The causes that develop bone tumors are not known. Usually it is related to heredity or injuries. 
Sometimes, radiation treatment and anti-cancer drugs may cause bone tumors. 


To diagnose bone tumor doctors may order a few lab tests such as blood and urine examinations. Usually, imaging tests like X-ray, CT scan, and MRI are also prescribed. To rule out malignancy, biopsies are often prescribed.   

Often treatment is not required in case of benign bone tumors. But in case the doctors think it may turn to be malignant or may cause a fracture they might conduct a surgery to remove the tumor.   

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Bursitis is Inflammation of the bursae sacs. These small fluid filled sacs cushion the bones, tendons and muscles near the joints. It eases the rubbing and friction between  the tissues. Bursitis usually occurs at joints like shoulder, knee, elbow which are stressed due to repeated  frequent movements. Bursitis which is a very painful condition occurs when bursae become inflamed. Symptoms are pain, stiffness and swelling. Treatment includes rest, application of ice pack and pain relievers. Surgery is rarely opted for.
Generally Bursitis pain reduces  in a short span of time but repeated recurrence are also common.

  • Repetitive motions or exertions that put pressure on the Bursae around a joint. It commonly occurs among athletes, musicians, gardeners, carpenters to name a few.
  • Sudden Injury or trauma 
  • Infection

Risk Factors

  • Age - usually people over forty are more affected. With age joints become less strong to withstand over exertion.
  • Occupations -  Any work or hobby that requires over exertion of the joints like scrubbing, shoveling, operating any machine manually, throwing, skiing to name a few
  • Certain medical conditions - With Diseases like  rheumatoid arthritis, gout and diabetes, Thyroid problem the risk of developing bursitis is greater. Excess weight is also a risk factor for developing knee or hip bursitis.

Possible affected areas

  • Shoulder
  • Knee
  • Elbow
  • Hip 
  • Buttocks
  • Heel


  • Pain which becomes sharp and acute
  • Stiffness 
  • Very painful or disabling to move the affected part
  • Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area
  • Rise in body temperature


  • Physical checking by the doctor 
  • Imaging tests like X-ray, MRI or USG
  • Lab tests of the fluid from the bursa for signs of infection

Sometimes Bursitis loses severity and improves on its own. Conservative ways like adequate rest, ice pack and pain relievers can lessen the suffering. If these measures don't work there are options like -

  • Medication - Sometimes the doctor prescribes antibiotics when  the inflammation is caused by any infection
  • Physical therapy or exercises - helps strengthen the muscles in the affected area to ease pain and prevent recurrence.
  • Injections - Corticosteroid injection into the bursa may be prescribed in severe cases of inflammation.  
  • Assistive device - Short term use of walking  stick  or any such device may aid to reduce pressure on the affected joint.
  • Surgery -  In rare cases  surgery is required to remove the affected bursa. 

Some preventive measures can be followed to lessen the risk, severity and recurrence of the disease. 

  • Taking repeated breaks while doing the same motion oriented work
  • To use padding or cushioned support when kneeling for long time 
  • Lifting correctly by bending the knees  to keep safe from extra stress 
  • Wheeling heavy loads instead of carrying  
  • Never to become overweight 
  • Regular exercise to strengthen the muscles
  • Warming up and stretching before strenuous activities 
  • One needs to begin slowly when attempting a new exercise or sport. 
  • Not to sit still  in same position for a long span.

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Carpal Tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition when one experiences pain, numbness and tingling in the hand and arm. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway surrounded by bones and ligaments on the palm side of one’s hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve. It occurs when the median nerve gets squeezed or compressed. The anatomy of one’s wrist, health conditions and repetitive hand motions can lead to carpal tunnel syndrome. Treatment may include rest, ice, wrist splints, cortisone injections and surgery. Proper treatment usually relieves the tingling and numbness and restores wrist and hand function.

  • Tingling or numbness 
  • Weakness in the hand and drop objects


  • Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve.
  • The median nerve runs from the forearm through a passageway in one’s wrist (carpal tunnel) to the hand. It provides sensation to the palm side of the thumb and fingers, except the little finger. It also provides nerve signals to move the muscles around the base of the thumb (motor function).
  • Anything that squeezes or irritates the median nerve in the carpal tunnel space may lead to carpal tunnel syndrome. 
  • Many times, there is no single cause of carpal tunnel syndrome. It may be that a combination of risk factors contributes to the development of the condition.

Risk factors
A number of factors have been associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Although they may not directly cause carpal tunnel syndrome, they may increase the risk.

  • Anatomic factors. A wrist fracture or dislocation, or arthritis that deforms the small bones in the wrist and put pressure on the median nerve.
  • People who have smaller carpal tunnels may be more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Gender - Carpal tunnel syndrome is generally more common in women. 
  • Women who have carpal tunnel syndrome may also have smaller carpal tunnels than women who don't have the condition.
  • Nerve-damaging conditions - Some chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, increase your risk of nerve damage, including damage to your median nerve.
  • Inflammatory conditions - Like Rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions can affect the lining around the tendons in the wrist and put pressure on median nerve.
  • Obesity - Being obese is a risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Body fluid changes - Fluid retention may increase the pressure within your carpal tunnel, irritating the median nerve. 
  • Other medical conditions - Certain conditions, such as menopause, thyroid disorders, kidney failure may increase the chances of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Workplace factors - Working with vibrating tools or on an assembly line that requires prolonged or repetitive flexing of the wrist may create harmful pressure on the median nerve. 


  • History of symptoms
  • Physical examination by the doctor
  • X-ray
  • Electromyography 
  • Nerve conduction study
  • Treatment

Carpal tunnel syndrome should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible after symptoms start. In the early stages, simple things that one can do for himself  may make the problem lessen. These are -

  • Take frequent breaks to rest the hands.
  • Avoid activities that make symptoms worse
  • Apply cold packs to reduce swelling.

Other treatment options include wrist splinting, medications and surgery. Splinting and other conservative treatments are more likely to help if one has only mild to moderate symptoms that come and go for less than 10 months. If one experiences numbness in the hands, medical intervention is important.
Non surgical therapy
If the condition is diagnosed early, nonsurgical methods may help improve. 

  • Wrist splinting - A splint that holds the wrist still while one sleeps,  can help relieve nighttime symptoms of tingling and numbness. 
  • Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Corticosteroids to relieve pain. Sometimes your doctor uses an ultrasound to guide these injections. Corticosteroids decrease inflammation and swelling 
  • If carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by rheumatoid arthritis or another inflammatory arthritis, then treating the arthritis may reduce symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. 

The goal of carpal tunnel surgery is to relieve pressure by cutting the ligament pressing on the median nerve.
The surgery may be performed with two different techniques:

  • Endoscopic surgery
  • Open surgery

Alternative medicine
Alternative therapies may help to cope with carpal tunnel syndrome. 

  • Yoga. 
  • Hand therapy. Early research suggests that certain physical and occupational hand therapy techniques may reduce symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Ultrasound therapy

Lifestyle and home remedies
These steps may provide temporary symptom relief:

  • Take short, frequent breaks from repetitive activities involving the use of the hands.
  • Losing excess weight 
  • Rotating the  wrists and stretch palms and fingers.
  • Taking  a pain reliever
  • Wearing  a snug, not tight, wrist splint at night. 
  • Avoid sleeping on hands.


  • Reduce your force and relax your grip
  • Take short, frequent breaks
  • Watch your form
  • Improve your posture
  • Change your computer mouse is comfortable
  • Keep your hands warm 

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Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is a condition that causes pain in the shoulder joint and freezes it for one to 3 three years. Initially it starts with pain and stiffness and gradually gets worse.  Hand movements become difficult that hampers daily life activities. 
The symptom of a frozen shoulder is pain and stiffness of one shoulder that makes it almost impossible to move. Usually an aching pain is felt around the shoulder muscles and in the upper arm. Most of the times theintensity of pain gets worse at night.
Usually a patient suffering from frozen shoulder passes through the following stages. 
Freezing Stage. This is the beginning stagewhen the pain develops.This period lasts anywhere from 6 to 9 months making your hand movements restricted. 
Frozen Stage. In this stage, shoulder joint becomes totally frozen making hand movements totally impossible. But in this stage pain becomes less. This period usually lasts between 4 to 12 months. 
Thawing Stage. In this stage patients slowly start moving their hand and ultimately go back to a normal situation. This timeline can be extended from 6 months to 2 years. 
Frozen shoulder occurs more in women than men. Usually people in the age group of 40 to 60 gets this disease. Diabetic people have a greater chance of having it. Other diseases like thyroid, heart diseases or Parkinson’s has a close relation with developing frozen shoulder.  
Often, an injury or trauma also causes frozen shoulder in some patients. 
A doctor can detect frozen shoulder by typically asking questions and doing physical examinations. But most of the times, to confirm it imaging tests are ordered.  X-rays, Ultrasound and MRI test helps rule out other possibilities of the frozen condition.  
Doctors initially prescribe Medications that controls pain and inflammation in the shoulder.  Physical exercises is another therapy that often works well when used side by side with the medications. 
If needed corticosteroid injections are pushed in the shoulder joint to reduce the pain and improve movements. Sometimes a joint distension therapy is prescribed also.  In this process sterile wateris injected in the shoulder joint to stretch the shoulder capsule.  
In treatment of frozen shoulder, surgery is seldom considered. But in rare cases doctors may advise arthroscopic procedure depending on the specific needs.  

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Golfer's Elbow

Golfer’s Elbow
Golfer's elbow is a condition that brings about pain on the inner side of the elbow. The pain might spread to the forearm and wrist. Golfer's elbow has similarity with tennis elbow, which affects the outside portion of the elbow. 
Not only Golfers or Tennis players anyone can develop this. It occurs due to excess stress, often by continuous wrist and finger motions. One feels  stiffness and weakness in the wrist and hand.
Usually rest, ice, pain relievers, stretching, physiotherapy and elbow bandaging help in lessening the symptoms. Rest and proper treatment can get one back to normal activities.
Golfer's elbow, medically known as epicondylitis, is caused by damage to the muscles and tendons that control the wrist and fingers. It usually happens due to over exertion or repeated stress — especially forceful wrist and finger motions. Some factors those are responsible include Improper lifting of weight, throwing or hitting, too little warm up or poor conditioning. Besides golf, many other activities and occupations may lead to golfer's elbow,  These are -

  • Games with Rackets. Improper technique of playing with rackets as in badminton or Tennis can injure the tendon.
  • Throwing sports.  In baseball or softball Improper pitching technique can be another factor. Football, archery and javelin throwing may also cause golfer's elbow.
  • Weight training. Lifting weights using improper technique can hurt the elbow muscles and tendons.
  • Forceful, repetitive movements for occupational necessity. It happens in occupations like painting, machine operating, plumbing or carpentry.


  • Pain : It is felt in the inner side of the elbow and it sometimes extends to forearm. Pain worsens with movements. The pain can occur suddenly or gradually. 
  • Stiffness: Stiffness in the elbow
  • Weakness: One  may have weakness in the hands and wrists.
  • Numbness or tingling: These sensations may develop in  one or more fingers. 

Risk factors

  • Age over forty years 
  • Performing repetitive movement based activity every day 
  • Having excess weight 
  • Regular smoking


  • Usually diagnosed by a physical examination by the doctor
  • Imaging tests like X-ray or MRI may be done 

Treatment begins with avoiding activity that causes pain. 

  • Pain relievers
  • Corticosteroid injections 

Therapy and other options

  • Long Rest – To stop repetitive activities until the pain is gone. 
  • Ice packs –To  apply ice packs to the elbow for 15 to 20 minutes at a time, three to four times a day for several days. 
  • Brace – Wearing a brace  gives some comfort as it reduces tendon and muscle strain.
  • Stretching  and strengthening – Appropriate exercises for stretching and strengthening of the elbow muscles . 

Surgery is rarely required. If the pain does not heal by conservative treatment in six to 12 months, minimally invasive surgery would be an option. 

  • Strengthen one’s forearm muscles. Use light weights or squeeze a tennis ball. Even simple exercises can help your muscles absorb the energy of sudden physical stress.
  • Stretch before strenuous activity. Walk or jog for a few minutes to warm up your muscles. Then do gentle stretches before you begin your game.
  • Fix your form. Whatever your sport, ask an instructor to check your form to avoid overload on muscles.
  • Use the right equipment. If you're using older golfing irons, consider upgrading to lighter graphite clubs. If you play tennis, make sure your racket fits you. A racket with a small grip or a heavy head may increase the risk of elbow problems.
  • Lift properly. When lifting anything — including free weights — keep your wrist rigid and stable to reduce the force to your elbow.
  • Know when to rest. Try not to overuse your elbow. At the first sign of elbow pain, take a break.

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Gout is a type of arthritis caused by presence of extra uric acid inhuman body.It is a painful disease that usually occurs more in men than women. It creates inflammation and typically affects big toes and other joints of the patient’s body. 
Gout attacks are sudden and can occur overnight.  It is extremely painful and usually has the following symptoms: 

  • Intense pain in the joints. 
  • Swelling and redness.
  • Tenderness 
  • Stiffness 
  • Feeling of the affected body part in on fire.

Human body creates uric acid while breaking down chemicals called purines that are present in some food and drinks. This by-product exits a human body through kidney. But if body produces excessive uric acid that kidney cannot manage, over accumulation ofuric acid creates sharp crystals in the joints. This causes gout.  
To confirm gout doctors take help of the following measures:

  • Symptoms: Type of pain, how often it occurs and how long it persists all this signs are judged by asking questions.    
  • Physical check-up: Physical examination are conducted to assess the tenderness, redness and warmth of the affected joint. 
  • Lab tests:Blood test is prescribed to identify higher level of uric acid accumulation. 
  • Imaging tests: X-Ray, ultra sound imaging and MRI helps confirming gout.
  • Aspiration: Sometimes a needle is used to pull fluid from the affected joint to examine it under a microscope to find out uric acid crystals in the joint.  

Once gout is confirmed, a medical professional will prescribe medications that controlspain and swelling. Some pills works efficiently in managing pain and inflammation if taken within 24 hours of a gout attack.  

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Low back pain

Low back pain is a painful condition that affects the lower portion of the spine. Low back pain usually occurs due to a strain or injury to a muscle or ligament. It happens because of improper lifting of weight, poor posture, a fracture, a ruptured disc, lack of regular exercise or arthritis. Often, the only symptom is pain in the lower back. Pain can be mild or severe. In some cases the pain makes it difficult to walk, sleep, work or perform daily activities.

Most low back pain goes away on after a short period with adequate rest, Physiotherapy and pain relievers.  A few cases may require surgery.

Risk Factors

Age:  Disks in the spine wear away with age and lead to pain and stiffness.
Over Weight:  Excess weight puts pressure on joints and disks.
Overall health: Weakened abdominal muscles can’t support the spine, which can lead to back strains and sprains. People who smoke, drink alcohol excessively or live a sedentary lifestyle are at higher risk of back pain.
Occupational life: Occupations  that require heavy lifting or  frequent bending increases the risk of a back injury.
Structural problems: It  can result from diseases like scoliosis, that affects spine structure.
Family history : People having a family history of osteoarthritis, certain types of cancer and some other diseases have a higher risk of low back pain.
Mental health: In some cases depression and stress may cause low back pain.

Symptoms of lower back pain can occur suddenly or gradually. Sometimes, it is felt after a specific activity like bending to picking up a load,  Otherwise one may not understand what is causing  the pain.

Pain may be sharp or dull and it may spread to one’s bottom or down the back of the legs (sciatica). Pain may worsen in certain positions like bending and may get better in a lying position.

Other symptoms include:

Stiffness: It may be hard to move or straighten your back or getting  up from a seated position. One  may experience decreased range of motion.
Posture problems: Many people with back pain find it hard to stand up straight.

Muscle spasms: After a strain, muscles in the lower back can spasm or contract uncontrollably. Muscle spasms can cause extreme pain and make it difficult or impossible to stand, walk or move.

The following investigations are usually advised:

Spine X-ray
CT scan
Electromyography (EMG) 
Depending on the nature of the pain blood tests or urine tests may be advised to  detect genetic markers for some conditions that cause back pain - such as ankylosing spondylitis.


Lower back pain usually improves with rest and pain relievers. Other treatment options for Low back pain include:

Medications: Your provider may recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 
 Physical therapy: It can strengthen muscles to support the spine. Physical therpy improves flexibility.
Injections:  Sometimes in severe cases Steroid injections can relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
Surgery: Some low back injuries may require surgical repair. There are a range of surgical methods including minimally invasive techniques.

One can’t prevent low back pain that is a consequence of a disease or structural problems in the spine. But one can avoid strains / injuries that cause back pain. Some of these precautions are as follows:

Avoid being over weight: Excess weight puts pressure on vertebrae and disks.
Strengthen one’ abdominal muscles: Do exercises to strengthen core muscles that support the spine.
Lift a load in the right way: To avoid injuries, lift the load perfectly. One should not to twist the torso while  lifting.

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Osteopenia is a condition that begins when the body loses bone mass and the bones get weaker. It happens with aging mostly after fifty years when the body gradually  loses its capacity to make new bones to replace the decaying bones. Women after menopause are at higher risk. Human bones are usually at their densest  in the young age up to one’s mid thirties. With ageing the bone architecture become vulnerable to stress and strain.
Difference between Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
Osteopenia is a middle stage between having strong  bones and having osteoporosis which makes bones so brittle that they easily break by a trivial injury. People who get Osteopenia are at a higher risk of having Osteoporosis. To be precise Osteopenia is mild loss of bone strength and Osteoporosis which is a severe loss of bone strength.
Low-calcium diet, age-related hormone changes, smoking, certain diseases and medication are the factors that lead to Osteopenia. Typically, there are no symptoms, unless the condition progresses to osteoporosis. Symptoms of osteoporosis include back pain, loss of height, a stooped posture and easily fractured bones.
While aging one has to be cautious to prevent Osteopenia. Even after one gets Osteopenia preventive measures have to be taken to stop it from turning into Osteoporosis. 


  • Low level of Calcium or vitamin D 
  • Age related hormonal changes
  • Less exercise and staying indoor
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Excessive drinking of alcohol 
  •  People suffering from celiac disease
  • Diseases like Hyperthyroidism, Rheumatoid arthritis, Acromegaly may lead to it
  • Prolonged use of certain medications like corticosteroids, or anti-seizure drugs
  • Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy

Usually there is no symptoms until there is a fracture due to a small injury. One might experience bone and joint pain or feel tired.
Osteopenia or Osteoporosis is determined by a bone density test. Bone density measures bone mass and bone strength. It is a dual-energy X-ray  called DEXA or DXA Scan which  measures bone density in hips, spine, and wrist. Dexa gives what is popularly known as T score count. If the score is between -1.0 to -2.5 it may be diagnosed as Osteopenia. A score lower than -2.5 it is Osteoporosis. 
Prevention and Treatment
Osteopenia is a condition, not a disease. Usually it can be controlled with supportive medications like Calcium, Vitamin D supplements or hormonal therapy. Life style changes will also help in preventing its progress to Osteoporosis. These include: 

  • Exercises like walking or jogging
  • Avoiding obesity
  • Taking enough dairy products like curd, cheese, milk.
  • Eating adequate Calcium rich food like green leafy vegetables, oily fish
  • Taking vitamin C rich foods like citrus fruits as it helps absorb calcium

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Osteoporosis  is a condition in which bones become  very weak and brittle. Even a fall on the floor or mild stress such as bending over, carrying a moderate load or heavy coughing can cause a fracture. The fractures usually occur in the hip, wrist or vertebrae of the spine. Bone is made of living tissues which are constantly being broken down and replaced. With osteoporosis, new bone creation doesn't keep up with old bone removal. This happens with aging – around  after fifty years or more and it is common in women after menopause.

In most of the cases Osteoporosis show up no symptom until there is a fracture for a trivial reason. In some cases Osteoporosis symptoms include back pain, loss of height or a stooped posture.

Treatment includes life style moderation like Calcium and Vitamin D rich diet,  weight-bearing exercise and some supportive medications to help prevent more bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.

Risk factors

Osteoporosis is common in people having low calcium intake. Prolonged lack of calcium may lead to osteoporosis. Low calcium intake decreases bone density and bone strength.

A number of factors can increase the chances of developing  osteoporosis. It includes the following:

Gender – common in females
 Family history 
 Small Body frame
Hormone levels
Low calcium intake
Eating disorders
Gastrointestinal disorder / surgery
Long term use of certain medications like Corticosteroids
Certain diseases like seizures, Gastric reflux, Cancer
Smoking and Tobacco product use
Excessive drinking
Certain diseases like Cancer, Rheumatoid arthritis, Liver disease to name  few
Life style like sedentary habit
Fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. It causes disability in some cases. Spinal fractures can occur even without falling. The bones in the spine called vertebrae become so fragile that it results in back pain, lost height and a hunched forward posture.


Osteoporosis is mainly  determined by a bone density test. It will assess how susceptible one’s bones are to fracture. A bone density test is the best way to predict fracture risk. Generally, the higher the mineral content, the denser the bone is. And the denser bones are, the less likely they are to fracture.

The dual-energy X-ray  called DEXA or DXA Scan measures bone density in hips, spine, and wrist. Dexa gives what is popularly known as T score count. If the score is between -1.0 to -2.5 it may be diagnosed as Osteopenia. A score below - 2.5 is termec as Osteoporosis.

Treatment recommendations are often based on an assessment of the risk of fracture. If it is not high,  life style modifications and increased Calcium intake can improve the condition. But in the cases of high risk of fracture and bone damage, some medications including hormonal medicines will be advised.

The best options to control  and prevent Osteoporosis

Life style modification including -

Regular practice of weight bearing exercise like walking and jogging but not swimming or cycling
Avoiding  smoking, tobacco use or excessive drinking
Eating Calcium and Vitamin D rich foods
Increased intake of Vitamin C which helps Calcium absorption
Weight loss
Proper nutrition and regular exercise are essential for keeping one’s bones healthy throughout the life.

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in your joints. It can affect any joint but is common in the wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is most common in older people.
A chronic inflammatory disorder affecting many joints, including those in the hands and feet.
In rheumatoid arthritis, the body's immune system attacks its own tissue, including joints. In severe cases, it attacks internal organs. 
Rheumatoid arthritis affects joint linings, causing painful swelling. Over long periods of time, the inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis can cause bone erosion and joint deformity.
While there's no cure for rheumatoid arthritis, physiotherapy and medication can help slow the disease's progression. Most cases can be managed with a class of medications called anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS). 
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than just your joints. In some people, the condition can damage a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart and blood vessels.
Unlike the wear-and-tear damage of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the lining of your joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity.
The inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis is what can damage other parts of the body as well. While new types of medications have improved treatment options dramatically, severe rheumatoid arthritis can still cause physical disabilities.


  • Tender and swollen joints
  • Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity
  • Fatigue
  • Fever 
  • Loss of appetite

Early rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect your smaller joints first — particularly the joints that attach your fingers to your hands and your toes to your feet.
As the disease progresses, symptoms often spread to the wrists, knees, ankles, elbows, hips and shoulders. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of your body.
About 40% of people who have rheumatoid arthritis also experience signs and symptoms that don't involve the joints. Areas that may be affected include:

  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Salivary glands
  • Nerve tissue
  • Bone marrow
  • Blood vessels

Rheumatoid arthritis signs and symptoms may vary in severity and may even come and go. Periods of increased disease activity, called flares, alternate with periods of relative remission — when the swelling and pain fade or disappear. Over time, rheumatoid arthritis can cause joints to deform and shift out of place.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. Normally, your immune system helps protect your body from infection and disease. In rheumatoid arthritis, your immune system attacks healthy tissue in your joints. It can also cause medical problems with your heart, lungs, nerves, eyes and skin.
Doctors don't know what starts this process, although a genetic component appears likely. While your genes don't actually cause rheumatoid arthritis, they can make you more likely to react to environmental factors — such as infection with certain viruses and bacteria — that may trigger the disease.
Risk factors
Factors that may increase your risk of rheumatoid arthritis include:

  • Your sex. Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Age. Rheumatoid arthritis can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age.
  • Family history. If a member of your family has rheumatoid arthritis, you may have an increased risk of the disease.
  • Smoking. Cigarette smoking increases your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, particularly if you have a genetic predisposition for developing the disease. Smoking also appears to be associated with greater disease severity.
  • Excess weight. People who are overweight appear to be at a somewhat higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis increases your risk of developing:

  • Osteoporosis. Rheumatoid arthritis itself, along with some medications used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, can increase your risk of osteoporosis — a condition that weakens your bones and makes them more prone to fracture.
  • Rheumatoid nodules. These firm bumps of tissue most commonly form around pressure points, such as the elbows. However, these nodules can form anywhere in the body, including the heart and lungs.
  • Dry eyes and mouth. People who have rheumatoid arthritis are much more likely to develop Sjogren's syndrome, a disorder that decreases the amount of moisture in the eyes and mouth.
  • Infections. Rheumatoid arthritis itself and many of the medications used to combat it can impair the immune system, leading to increased infections. Protect yourself with vaccinations to prevent diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, shingles and COVID-19.
  • Abnormal body composition. The proportion of fat to lean mass is often higher in people who have rheumatoid arthritis, even in those who have a normal body mass index (BMI).
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. If rheumatoid arthritis affects your wrists, the inflammation can compress the nerve that serves most of your hand and fingers.
  • Heart problems. Rheumatoid arthritis can increase your risk of hardened and blocked arteries, as well as inflammation of the sac that encloses your heart.
  • Lung disease. People with rheumatoid arthritis have an increased risk of inflammation and scarring of the lung tissues, which can lead to progressive shortness of breath.
  • Lymphoma. Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of lymphoma, a group of blood cancers that develop in the lymph system.

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Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that is usually detected in adolescents. 
Most cases are mild. Some children develop spine deformities that get more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be painful and disabling.
 In many cases, no treatment is necessary. Children who have mild scoliosis are monitored closely, usually with X-rays, to see if the curve is getting worse. Children are advised to wear a brace to stop the curve from worsening. Others may need surgery to straighten severe curves.
While scoliosis can occur in people with cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, the cause of most childhood scoliosis is unknown. 

  • Uneven shoulders
  • One shoulder blade appears more prominent than the other
  • Uneven waist
  • One hip higher than the other
  • One side of the rib cage jutting forward
  • A prominence on one side of the back when bending forward

With most scoliosis cases, the spine will rotate or twist in addition to curving side to side. This causes the ribs or muscles on one side of the body to stick out farther than those on the other side.
What causes scoliosis is still unknown. It appears to involve hereditary factors, because the disorder sometimes runs in families. Less common types of scoliosis may be caused by:

  • Certain neuromuscular conditions, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy
  • Birth defects affecting the development of the bones of the spine
  • Previous surgery on the chest wall as a baby
  • Injuries to or infections of the spine
  • Spinal cord abnormalities

Risk factors

  • Age -  Typically begin in adolescence
  • Gender  -  Girls have a much higher risk 
  • Family history – Sometimes hereditary factors have a role 


  • Breathing problems. In severe scoliosis, the rib cage may press against the lungs, making it more difficult to breathe.
  • Back problems. Some patients may have chronic back pain as adults.
  • Appearance. Scoliosis can cause noticeable changes in one’s body structure which adversely affects the patient’s physical  appearance.


  • Physical examination by the doctor
  • Imaging tests  -  Plain X-rays  and in some cases Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Treatment Options
Scoliosis treatments vary, depending on the severity of the curve. Bracing or surgery are the options if the spinal curve is moderate or severe. 
If a child's bones are still growing and he or she has moderate scoliosis and doctor may recommend a brace. Wearing a brace won't cure scoliosis or reverse the curve, but it usually prevents the curve from getting worse.
Severe scoliosis typically progresses with time, so surgery may be required to help straighten the curve and prevent it from getting worse.
Surgical options include: 

  • Spinal fusion
  • Expanding rod
  • Vertebral body tethering

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Slipped Disc

Slipped Disc 
Slipped Disc is a painful condition caused by prolapsed soft inner portion of the discs in between the bones in the spinal columns. Human spine is made of vertebrae or series of bones. These bones are covered by discs that protect the bones and absorb the shocks while making movements and walking. Injury or weakness may slip these discs from its exact position. In this condition the inner gelatinous part comes out through the hard part of the disc and causes this painful health issue.    
Here are the common symptoms of Slipped Disc:

  • Pain and numbness on a particular side of the body. 
  • Pain that aggravates during night or by making some particular movements
  • Pain that becomes severe after standing up or sitting
  • Pain that spreads to the arms and legs 
  • Feeling of pain while walking a short distance 
  • Feeling extreme muscle weakness 
  • Aching, tingling or burning sensation in the affected area  


  • Age is one of the causes which increases the chance of experiencing a Slipped Disc. The protective watery content in the discs becomes less with aging and it tends to create such a condition. 
  • Overweight is another cause that puts extra burden on the spine as well as the discs which makes the discs slip out of their place.  
  • Lifting heavy weight, an injury or a physically demanding work can create pressure on the spine and becomes responsible for a Slipped Disc. 

Initially, a physical exam is conducted by the medical professional to assess the type of pain and its source. Medical history of a patient is also judged by asking questions. Finally, to confirm a Slipped Disc imaging tests are prescribed. These tests may includeX rays, CT scans, MRI scans and Discograms. 

The line of treatment of Slipped Disc mostly depend on how far the disc is slipped out of its exact position and also on the patient’s condition.  Usually, physical therapy and exercises helps strengthen the back and controls the pain and discomfort. Most of the times, various pain relieving medications, narcotics, nerve pain medications and muscles relaxers, work effectively and improve patient’s condition within six weeks. Surgery is only recommended if the patient does not respond to any of these treatments procedures. 

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Spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects spinal bones and large joints. It reduces flexibility of vertebrae and automatically develops spine hunched. It is more common in men and most of the times starts in early adulthood.
Pain and inflammation are the common signs of all types of spondylitis. But the symptoms can vary from person to person depending on the type of spondylitis the patient is suffering from. Muscle pain, eye inflammation, fatigue, swelling in the arms or legs and severe pain in the back or in the joints are usually the main complains. In some cases spondylitis affects skin, digestive system and heart also.    
Spondylitis can be of different types as it is listed below:

  • Ankylosing Spondylitis    
  • Juvenile Spondylitis
  • Enteropathic Arthritis    
  • Undifferentiated Spondylitis
  • Psoriatic Arthritis    
  • Axial Spondylitis
  • Reactive Arthritis    
  • Peripheral Spondylitis

The causes behind developing Spondylitis is yet not known. But Ankylosing spondylitis usually occurs if there is a family history. Enteropathetic Arthritis is more common with people suffering from other Bacterial infection or IBD diseases like Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis. Unmanaged stress is often identified as the main cause of making spondylitis more difficult. 
Doctors usually detect spondylitis by physically checking a patient.  The medical history and family history also plays a role in the diagnosis process.  However, to confirm spondylitis the following tests are usually prescribed: 

  • Blood tests    
  • MRI
  • X-ray    
  • Genetic Testing

Spondylitis has no cure. But it can be managed with pain relieving medications, infection controlling medications, steroid injections to keep it in control. Physical therapies also work very well in many cases. In rare situations surgery is ordered. 

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Tendinitis is a condition when a tendon swells after a tendon injury. A tendon is the thick fibrous cord that attach muscle to bone. Its consequences include joint pain, stiffness, and difficulty to move a joint. Tendinitis can occur in any tendon, but it's most common around  the shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels. Some tendinitis problems are: Tennis elbow, Golfer's elbow, Pitcher's shoulder and Swimmer's shoulder.
Most cases of tendinitis can be successfully managed with rest, physical therapy and medications. If it is severe and leads to the rupture of a tendon, surgery will be necessary.

  • Dull ache, especially when moving the affected limb or joint
  • Tenderness
  • Mild swelling


  • Although tendinitis can be caused by a sudden injury, the condition is much more likely to stem from the repetition of a particular movement over time. Most people develop tendinitis because their jobs or hobbies involve repetitive motions, which put stress on the tendons.
  • Using proper technique is especially important when performing repetitive sports movements or job-related activities. Improper technique can overload the tendon — which can occur, for instance, with tennis elbow — and lead to tendinitis.

Risk factors
Risk factors for developing tendinitis include age, working in particular jobs or participating in certain sports.
As people get older, their tendons become less flexible — which makes them easier to injure.
Tendinitis is more common in people whose jobs involve:

  • Repetitive motions
  • Awkward positions
  • Frequent overhead reaching
  • Vibration
  • Forceful exertion


  • Baseball
  • Basketball
  • Bowling
  • Golf
  • Running
  • Swimming
  • Tennis


  • Without proper treatment, tendinitis can increase the risk of tendon rupture, a much more serious condition requiring surgery.
  • If tendon irritation persists for several weeks or months, a condition known as Tendinosis may develop. This involves degenerative changes in the tendon, along with abnormal new blood vessel growth.

Usually it  is diagnosed by physical exam alone. But X-rays or other imaging tests may be required to rule out the possibility of other diseases.

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Tennis Elbow

Tennis elbow is a painful condition caused by inflammation of the tendons that joins the muscles to the forearm. It occurs by repeated motions of elbow that create stress on tissue. As the name of this disease suggests Tennis players often have this issue but people from other professions who ever have repeated hand motion also have tennis elbow.   

The main symptom of Tennis Elbow is pain and tenderness in the bony part of the elbow.  The pain may extend to the lower of upper arm also. 
Usually maximum pain is felt during lifting an object, opening a door, shaking hand or gripping an object like tennis racket. 


Regular and repetitive arm movements that cause strain on the elbow muscles and put too much stress on the tendons is responsible for this condition. 
People who play tennis, racquetball, squash, weight lifting, swimming or fencing may easily develop this disease. Other than this, professionals who are engaged in typing, painting, carpentry, raking, knitting, gardening or any other manual work are likely to get Tennis Elbow.

To diagnosis Tennis Elbow, doctors check the patient physically and find out the nature of pain and the exact location where it hurts. To rule out other causes of pain the patient may need to go through X-ray and MRI tests.  


The treatment prescribed to deal with a Tennis Elbow are as follows:  

  • Rest – a break from regular work and activities allows the tendons muscles to heal. 
  • Physical Therapy – this helps the shoulders, upper arms and abdominal muscles become strong and reduce the pain in the elbow while making a movement. 
  • Ice massaging – It stimulates the muscles and reduce pain. 
  • Strapping the forearm – By supporting the forearm muscle fibres can be easily realigned and healed. 
  • Medication – non inflammatory and pain relieving medicines work well in many cases.  
  • Steroid Injection – It is prescribed if the condition becomes extremely painful and make movements very difficult. 
  • Surgery – Rarely surgery is ordered to remove the affected tendon to control the pain. 

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Hip Pain

Pain in the hip, that is mild to severe. Hip pain can develop without any underlying disease. It may occur due to any injury, lying on a side for a prolonged period, over exertion, muscle stiffness, sitting in an awkward position, sprains or strains.

Hip pain can sometimes can occur due to a disease or conditions in other areas of one’s body, such as lower back.


Hip pain may be caused by arthritis, injuries or other problems. The exact location of the hip pain can indicate the underlying cause. Hip pain on the outside of one’s hip, upper thigh or outer buttock is usually caused by problems with muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues that surround the hip joint. The following factors may be responsible:

  • Arthritis
  • Bursitis
  • Muscle strain
  • Tendinitis
  • Hip Labral tear
  • Avascular necrosis (death of bone tissue)
  • Certain cancers like bone cancer


Depending on the condition that's causing one’s hip pain, discomfort or pain may be felt in the following parts of the body:

  • Inside of the hip joint
  • Groin
  • Outside of the hip joint
  • Buttocks


  • X-rays
  • CT scans
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Fluid tests which involves taking samples of blood, urine, and joint fluid


The treatment of hip pain depends on the cause. For exercise-related pain, rest is usually enough to allow the hip to heal. This type of pain goes away within a few days.

In case of Arthritis doctor will prescribe medications to relieve the pain and stiffness.

For injuries, bed rest and medications areadvised.

Hip fractures, malformation of the hip, and some injuries may require surgical intervention to repair or replace the hip. In hip replacement surgery, a surgeon replaces the damaged hip joint with an artificial one. This is a common surgery that’s most often successful.


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