Gastroenterology Department | Gastroenterologist at AMRI Hospitals










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Overview

AMRI Hospitals’ Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatobiliary Sciences is a premier centre in eastern India with latesttechnology based high end treatment facilities. The department provides a wide array of multidisciplinary and multi-modality services, all under one roof to manage any kind of liver and gastro-intestinal disorders and its complications.We havea team of eastern regions’ most talented and renowned Gastroenterologists, high precision instruments along with video navigation tools for minimally invasive as well as robotic surgeries for accurate diagnosis and perfection and round the clock emergency services to provide comprehensive care for faster recovery and excellent rehabilitation.

Highlights

Doctors with mile stone achievements - The best surgical and medical Gastroenterologistsin eastern India are available in AMRI Kolkata and Bhubaneswar, who are expertsin complex gastro surgeries and treatments including laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

Comprehensive clinical care AMRI team of experts include hepatologists, gastro-intestinal &minimal access surgeons as well as interventional radiologists to provide coordinated as well as integrated treatment for complex cases.

Technology at its best – Most advanced technology based high precision instruments are used for diagnosis and procedures to ensure accuracy, precision and speedy recovery. Our cutting edge facilities include - high-end endoscopy & radiology instruments, video navigating tools, capsule endoscopy, Image intensifier in  ICU and Operation Theatre to name a few.

Wide array of treatment options – We treat awide spectrum of diseases and rare disorders that include all types of gastro-intestinal, hepatic, biliary,pancreatic and, colorectal complexities.

Optimum care - Our Centre for Gastroenterology ensures optimum care round the clock. Besides our team of experienced doctors, supported by high end equipment, we also have highly skilled technicians, nurses and nutritionists who ensure successful management of all GI related complexities ensuring maximum patient comfort and safety.

Facilities / Spectrum of Services

  • Ultrasonography
  • Hi-speed CT scan
  • Gl Endoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Double Balloon Enteroscopy
  • ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-pancreatography)
  • Bile Duct Stone Extraction
  • Esophageal dilation
  • Argon plasma Coagulation
  • Endoscopic Variceal ligation
  • Capsule Endoscopy
  • AnorectalManometry
  • Esophageal Manometry
  • Esophageal Metal Stenting

Diseases & Procedures
Diseases | Procedures
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reset
S
Shigellosis

Shigellosis

 

Shigellosis is an infection caused by bacteria known as Shigella. This disease develops fever and diarrhea. Signs and symptoms start showing up within one or two days after the infection sets in. Usually it lasts seven days and can be tackled without antibiotics.   

 

Symptoms

The common symptoms of Shigellosis may include:

  • Diarrhea in many cases containing blood
  • Stomach pain
  • Stomach cramps
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting

Cause

Infection develops when someone accidentally swallows shigella bacteria. This is likely to happen in the following situations:

  • Direct contact with a person who is suffering from this disease.
  • Eating contaminated food. 
  • Swallowing contaminated water. 
  • Touching mouth without washing hands.

 

 

Diagnosis

Fever and diarrhea are common symptoms of a number of diseases. To rule out possibilities of any other infection and confirm Shigellosis, stool test is the only way-out that can identify presence of Shigella bacteria.

Treatment

Usually a Shigella infection automatically gets over after within a week.   Taking rest and replacing lost fluids and salt is the common treatment a patient may need to tackle this disease. But if the general health of the patient is not good or the infection is severe, doctors may recommend hospitalization to provide intravenous hydration and antibiotics for quick remedies.

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R
Rotavirus

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is an extremely contagious disease that causes severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever and vomiting in usually in infants and children under 5 years old. Sometimes it also affects adults.  

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of this intestinal disease include:

  • Watery stool
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • High temperature
  • High temperature
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • dehydration

 

Cause

Rotavirus in the stool of the infected baby spread through touch while nursing the child. If the virus goes to mouth of the caregiver of the child while changing baby’s diaper or touching the toys of the sick baby that person may quickly get affected. 

Diagnosis

Rotavirus is diagnosed by a stool PCR test in a lab.

Treatment 

Rotavirus has no cure. Medications based on symptoms can improve the condition. Usually this virus automatically goes away within seven to ten days. During this period giving enough fluid and bland food in smaller quantity is the only solution. Avoiding dehydration is the main challenge in this disease. Maintaining hygiene and disinfecting measures are equally important to avoid contamination. Rotavirus vaccination also does not ensure full proof against the disease but it definitely makes the symptoms less severe.

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P
Proctitis

Proctitis is inflammation of the lining of the rectum. The rectum is a muscular tube that's connected to the end of your colon. Stool passes through the rectum on its way out of the body. 
Proctitis can cause rectal pain, diarrhea, bleeding and discharge, as well as the continuous feeling that you need to have a bowel movement. Proctitis symptoms can be short-lived, or they can become chronic.
Proctitis is common in people who have inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis). Sexually transmitted infections are another frequent cause. Proctitis also can be a side effect of radiation therapy for certain cancers.


Symptoms

  • A frequent or continuous feeling that you need to have a bowel movement
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Passing mucus through your rectum
  • Rectal pain
  • Pain on the left side of your abdomen
  • A feeling of fullness in your rectum
  • Diarrhea
  • Pain with bowel movements

Causes

  • Inflammatory bowel disease. About 30% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) have inflammation of the rectum.
  • Infections. Sexually transmitted infections, spread particularly by people who engage in anal intercourse, can result in proctitis. Sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis include gonorrhea, genital herpes and chlamydia. Infections associated with foodborne illness, such as salmonella, shigella and campylobacter infections, also can cause proctitis.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at your rectum or nearby areas, such as the prostate, can cause rectal inflammation. Radiation proctitis can begin during radiation treatment and last for a few months after treatment. Or it can occur years after treatment.
  • Antibiotics. Sometimes antibiotics used to treat an infection can kill helpful bacteria in the bowels, allowing the harmful Clostridium difficile bacteria to grow in the rectum.
  • Diversion proctitis. Proctitis can occur in people following some types of colon surgery in which the passage of stool is diverted from the rectum to a surgically created opening (stoma).
  • Food protein-induced proctitis. This can occur in infants who drink either cow's milk- or soy-based formula. Infants breast-fed by mothers who eat dairy products also may develop proctitis.
  • Eosinophilic proctitis. This condition occurs when a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the rectum. Eosinophilic proctitis affects only children younger than 2.

Risk factors

  • Unsafe sex
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Radiation therapy for cancer

Complications

  • Anemia
  • Ulcers
  • Fistula

Diagnosis

  • Stool test
  • Blood test
  • Scope exam of the last portion of the colon
  • Scope exam of the entire colon
  • Test for sexually transmitted disease

Treatment
Treatment for proctitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation.
For proctitis caused by infection

  • Antibiotics
  • Antivirals

For proctitis caused by radiation therapy

  • Medication
  • Stool softeners
  • Treatment to destroy damage tissues

For proctitis caused by inflammatory bowel disease

  • Medications to control rectal inflammation
  • Surgery
     

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P
Pouchitis

Pouchitis is a disease that develops inflammation in the lining of a pouch created during conducting a surgery to treat ulcerative colitis or some other diseases. 

Symptoms 
Signs of Pouchitis usually includes: 

  • Abdominal Pain 
  • Bloody Stool
  • Diarrhea
  • Losing control over bowel movements
  • Joint pain 
  • Fever
  • Belly Cramps

Cause
This disease do not develop naturally. It occurs after a surgery related to ulcerative colitis and some other surgical procedures. 

Diagnosis 
Pouchitis can be diagnosed from symptoms but to confirm the disease, doctors may order imaging tests like CT scan or MRI.  Endoscopy is another confirmatory test for this IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease).

Treatment 
Various medications are used to treat Pouchitis. Diet planning with less vegetables and more protein supplement helps improve the condition.

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P
Peritonitis

Peritonitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the peritoneum a silky membrane that line abdominal wall and also covers the organs within the abdomen. It is an infectious disease that may often turn to be life-threatening.  Peritonitis are of two types: Spontaneous Bacterial   Peritonitis and Secondary Peritonitis. 

Symptoms 
Here are the common symptoms of Peritonitis:

  • Bloating    
  • Fever
  • Nausea and Vomiting    
  • Low urine output
  • Abdominal pain    
  • Unusual feeling of thirst
  • Diarrhea    
  • Fatigue

Cause 
The following conditions may develop Peritonitis: 

  • Abdominal wound or injury 
  • Kinney or Liver failure
  • Ruptured Appendix 
  • Stomach ulcer 
  • Pancreatitis
  • Diverticulitis 
  • Perforated colon 
  • Infection of gallbladder, intestine or bloodstream 
  • Pelvic inflammatory Disease 
  • Crohn’s Disease 
  • Invasive surgical or treatment procedure 
     

Diagnosis 

Peritonitis is diagnosed by checking symptoms, medical history and physical examination. To confirm the disease doctors prescribe the following tests: 

  • Blood 
  • Urine 
  • Imaging tests like X-ray and CT scan 
  • Exploratory surgery 
     

Treatment 
Medications are used to treat Peritonitis. 
 

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M
Mesenteric ischemia

Mesenteric ischemia develops when blocked arteries restrict or cutoff blood flow to the small intestine.  This condition can damage the intestine permanently. Mesenteric ischemia is of two types acute and chronic. 

Symptoms 
Symptoms for acute Mesenteric Ischemia include: 

  • Sudden and severe pain in the abdomen
  • Feeling of urgent need of bowel movement
  • Nausea and vomiting tendency 

Symptoms of chronic Mesenteric Ischemia are: 

  • Abdominal pain that usually starts within 30 minutes after eating 
  • Pain intensifies over an hour
  • Pains slowly subsides within two or three hours

Cause 
Mesenteric Ischemia, both acute and chronic occurs due blockage in the artery that decreases blood flow to the intestine. Usually, blood clot in the main mesenteric artery develops acute Mesenteric Ischemia. Often the clot originally forms in the heart. But in chronic Mesenteric Ischemia most of the times build up plaques narrow the arteries and restricts blood circulation in the intestine.  

Diagnosis 
To determine Mesenteric Ischemia in a patient, doctors might prescribe the following test: 

  • Angiography
  • Doppler Ultrasound  

Treatment 
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia requires immediate surgery. In case of chronic Mesenteric Ischemia a balloon is used to inflate the narrowed artery through a procedure. 
 

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G
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

GERD or Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic digestive disease. In this condition contents of stomach often flow backward up through the food pipe and causes irritation in the lining of this pipe known as esophagus. Acid reflux, heartburn and Acid indigestion are the other names commonly used for this disease.

Symptoms

 

Signs of GERD include;

 

  • Frequent heartburn
  • Stomach’s contents, acid or bile flows into the esophagus.  Irritation in the lining of esophagus.
  • Burning chest pain
  • Aggravated pain after eating
  • Discomfort usually worsens when lying down
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sore Throat
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Bad breath

 

Cause

GERD occurs in the following conditions:

The function of lower esophageal sphincter or LES is to relax and open up helping swallowing food. But if it opens up when you are not having food it initiates this backwash.  

  • Eating a large meal
  • Eating certain foods like chocolates, citrus fruits, spicy or junk food items or peppermint.
  • Being overweight also creates pressure on the abdomen.  
  • Side effects from some typical medications.  
  • Smoking, drinking or consuming carbonated beverages.

Being pregnant that usually increases risk for GERD.  .

  • Eating late without time gap before going to bed
  • Lying flat immediately after eating

 

Diagnosis

Primarily, GERD is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms.  

But to confirm GERD, doctors may prescribe the following diagnostic tests:

  • Upper Endoscopy 
  • Esophageal pH and Impedance Monitoring 
  • Bravo Wireless Esophageal pH Monitoring 
  • Esophageal Manometry 
  • Upper Digestive System X-Ray 

 

Treatment

To GERD, medical professionals usually recommend lifestyle changes, which include avoiding certain foods, focusing on eating smaller meals, and taking meals a couple of hours before going to bed.

Medication and home remedies also work effectively in managing GERD.

If nothing works then only in few rare cases surgical processes are recommended. 

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Z
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas or the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin, which causes your stomach to produce too much acid.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may occur at any time in life, but people usually find out they're affected between ages 20 and 60. Medications to reduce stomach acid and heal the ulcers are the usual treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Symptoms

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Burning, aching, gnawing or discomfort in your upper abdomen
  • Acid reflux and heartburn
  • Burping
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bleeding in your digestive tract
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Decreased appetite

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is yet unknown. The syndrome begins when  there are one or more tumor (gastrinomas) formation in the pancreas or duodenum or at other sites adjacent to the pancreas.

Anyone can get his disease. But, some people get it due to inherited condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Children of adults with MEN1 are at a  greater risk of developing the disease. It is more common in male population often those between 30 and 50 years old.

The tumors that occur with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome are made up of cells that secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin. Increased gastrin makes the stomach produce far too much acid. The excess acid leads to peptic ulcers and can become cancerous (malignant).

Diagnosis

  • Checking the patient’s medical history
  • Blood tests to check gastrin levels
  • Endoscopy
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound
  • Imaging tests like CT Scan or MRI

Treatment

Surgery is the main treatment for gastrinoma and it's usually the only treatment that can cure it. But surgery isn't always possible. Some gastrinomas may have already started to spread when they are diagnosed. The patient might have treatment to control the symptoms if the surgery is not possible.

In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome excess acid production can be effectively controlled by medications.

 

 

In some cases, doctors advise other treatments to control tumor growth, which comprises the following:

  • Removing as much of a liver tumor as possible (debulking)
  • Attempting to destroy the tumor by cutting off the blood supply (embolization) or by using heat to destroy cancer cells (radiofrequency ablation)
  • Injecting drugs into the tumor to relieve cancer symptoms
  • Using chemotherapy to try to slow tumor growth
  • Having a liver transplant

 

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F
Fatty Liver

Fatty Liver disease indicates excessive accumulation of fat in one’s Liver. Major risk factors include obesity and type 2 diabetes, though it's also associated with excessive alcohol consumption. 
It usually causes no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they include fatigue, weight loss and abdominal pain. Treatment involves controlling the risk factors. Although a benign condition, but in some patients, it can progress to cirrhosis of Liver or Liver failure.

Types

Fatty liver disease is categorized as Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatic steatosis  and the other type is called  Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Heavy drinking causes the latter. 
 

Symptoms
NAFLD symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite and nausea
  • Pain or discomfort in the upper right abdomen

NASH advance symptoms include:

  • Abdominal swelling (ascites)
  • Enlarged blood vessels just beneath the skin's surface
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Red palms
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

Causes

It is not yet identified that why some people accumulate fat in the liver while others do not. Similarly, there is limited understanding of why some fatty livers develop inflammation that progresses to cirrhosis. Causes of both NAFLD and NASH are related to the following:

  • Overweight or obesity
  • Insulin resistance, in which your cells don't take up sugar in response to the hormone insulin
  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia), indicating pre diabetes or type 2 diabetes
  • High levels of fats, particularly triglycerides, in the blood

Risk Factors

A wide range of diseases and conditions can increase the  risk of NAFLD, including:

  • High cholesterol
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Sleep apnea
  • Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
  • Underactive pituitary gland (hypopituitarism)

Complications

  • The liver becomes inflamed (swollen), which damages its tissue. 
  • Scar tissue forms where the liver is damaged. This is called fibrosis.
  • Extensive scar tissue replaces healthy tissue leading to cirrhosis of the liver.

Diagnosis

In order to detect fatty liver several blood tests like liver function test, liver enzymes, lipid profile, viral hepatitis to name a few and imaging tests like USG, CT Scan or MRI can be advised.
 

Treatment

Basically life style changes are required to control Fatty Liver. The first line of treatment is usually weight loss through a combination of a healthy diet and exercise. Losing weight addresses the conditions that contribute to NAFLD. For those who have cirrhosis due to NASH, liver transplantation may be an option.
 

Prevention

  • Healthy diet
  • Control weight gain
  • Regular exercise

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