Gastroenterology Department | Gastroenterologist at AMRI Hospitals










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Overview

AMRI Hospitals’ Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatobiliary Sciences is a premier centre in eastern India with latesttechnology based high end treatment facilities. The department provides a wide array of multidisciplinary and multi-modality services, all under one roof to manage any kind of liver and gastro-intestinal disorders and its complications.We havea team of eastern regions’ most talented and renowned Gastroenterologists, high precision instruments along with video navigation tools for minimally invasive as well as robotic surgeries for accurate diagnosis and perfection and round the clock emergency services to provide comprehensive care for faster recovery and excellent rehabilitation.

Highlights

Doctors with mile stone achievements - The best surgical and medical Gastroenterologistsin eastern India are available in AMRI Kolkata and Bhubaneswar, who are expertsin complex gastro surgeries and treatments including laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

Comprehensive clinical care AMRI team of experts include hepatologists, gastro-intestinal &minimal access surgeons as well as interventional radiologists to provide coordinated as well as integrated treatment for complex cases.

Technology at its best – Most advanced technology based high precision instruments are used for diagnosis and procedures to ensure accuracy, precision and speedy recovery. Our cutting edge facilities include - high-end endoscopy & radiology instruments, video navigating tools, capsule endoscopy, Image intensifier in  ICU and Operation Theatre to name a few.

Wide array of treatment options – We treat awide spectrum of diseases and rare disorders that include all types of gastro-intestinal, hepatic, biliary,pancreatic and, colorectal complexities.

Optimum care - Our Centre for Gastroenterology ensures optimum care round the clock. Besides our team of experienced doctors, supported by high end equipment, we also have highly skilled technicians, nurses and nutritionists who ensure successful management of all GI related complexities ensuring maximum patient comfort and safety.

Facilities / Spectrum of Services

  • Ultrasonography
  • Hi-speed CT scan
  • Gl Endoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Double Balloon Enteroscopy
  • ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-pancreatography)
  • Bile Duct Stone Extraction
  • Esophageal dilation
  • Argon plasma Coagulation
  • Endoscopic Variceal ligation
  • Capsule Endoscopy
  • AnorectalManometry
  • Esophageal Manometry
  • Esophageal Metal Stenting

Our Specialists
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Dr Sujit Chaudhuri
Qualifications

MD (Gen Med),DM (Gastro) Dip Card

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Dr Debojyoti Mazumder
Qualifications

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Dr Suddhasattwa Sen
Qualifications

MBBS ( Gold medalist ) , MS ( Gold medalist ) , DNB ( All India Gold medalist ) , MNAMS ( IND ) , MRCS ( UK ) , FICS ( USA ) , DNB ( SGE & HPB ) , FMAS ( AMASI ) , Fellow HPB & Liver Transplant ( Sir Gangaram , Apollo , Del ) , CC Lap Solid Organ Surgery ( Ethicon ) , CC Endohernia ( Ethicon ) , CC Lap Colorectal ( Galaxy , Pune ) / Lap UGI surgery and VATS ( Calicut ) , Ob. Fellow HPB & GIS ( SGPGIMS , Lucknow / GB Pant , Del )

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Dr Sanjoy Basu
Qualifications

FRCP(EDIN), MRCP(LONDON), PG GASTRO(UK), JAG (UK) ACCREDITED G.I ENDOSCOPIST

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Dr PRABIR BANERJEE
Qualifications

MD, DM (Gastro)

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Dr Debottam Bandyopadhyay
Qualifications

MBBS ( GOLD MEDALIST)MD (MEDICINE, GOLD MEDALIST), DM (MEDICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY)

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Dr Tuhin Subhra Mandal
Qualifications

MS, MSH

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Dr Goutam Das
Qualifications

MD (Internal Medicine), DM(PGI Chandigarh)

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Dr Dilip Todi
Qualifications

MD, MRCP (UK), CCST (Gastro, UK)

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Dr Bhaswati Acharyya
Qualifications

DCH, MD, DNB(Paed.), DNB(Gastro.), MRCPCH(UK), MRCP (Edin.)

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Dr Prateik Poddar
Qualifications

MD, DM (GASTRO)

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Prof Tarun Lahiri Mazumdar
Qualifications

MD(AIIMS), DM(AIIMS)

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Dr Sudipta Ghosh
Qualifications

MD, MRCP(UK)

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Dr Agnibha Dutta
Qualifications

MD(General Med.), DM(Gastro.)

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Dr BRUNDABAN NAHAK
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Dr GOURAV DAS
Qualifications

MS, FMAS, FIAGES

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Dr SAURAJIT PATNAIK
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Dr Ashutosh Mohapatra
Qualifications

DM

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Diseases & Procedures
Diseases | Procedures
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reset
S
Shigellosis

Shigellosis

 

Shigellosis is an infection caused by bacteria known as Shigella. This disease develops fever and diarrhea. Signs and symptoms start showing up within one or two days after the infection sets in. Usually it lasts seven days and can be tackled without antibiotics.   

 

Symptoms

The common symptoms of Shigellosis may include:

  • Diarrhea in many cases containing blood
  • Stomach pain
  • Stomach cramps
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting

Cause

Infection develops when someone accidentally swallows shigella bacteria. This is likely to happen in the following situations:

  • Direct contact with a person who is suffering from this disease.
  • Eating contaminated food. 
  • Swallowing contaminated water. 
  • Touching mouth without washing hands.

 

 

Diagnosis

Fever and diarrhea are common symptoms of a number of diseases. To rule out possibilities of any other infection and confirm Shigellosis, stool test is the only way-out that can identify presence of Shigella bacteria.

Treatment

Usually a Shigella infection automatically gets over after within a week.   Taking rest and replacing lost fluids and salt is the common treatment a patient may need to tackle this disease. But if the general health of the patient is not good or the infection is severe, doctors may recommend hospitalization to provide intravenous hydration and antibiotics for quick remedies.

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R
Rotavirus

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is an extremely contagious disease that causes severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever and vomiting in usually in infants and children under 5 years old. Sometimes it also affects adults.  

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of this intestinal disease include:

  • Watery stool
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • High temperature
  • High temperature
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • dehydration

 

Cause

Rotavirus in the stool of the infected baby spread through touch while nursing the child. If the virus goes to mouth of the caregiver of the child while changing baby’s diaper or touching the toys of the sick baby that person may quickly get affected. 

Diagnosis

Rotavirus is diagnosed by a stool PCR test in a lab.

Treatment 

Rotavirus has no cure. Medications based on symptoms can improve the condition. Usually this virus automatically goes away within seven to ten days. During this period giving enough fluid and bland food in smaller quantity is the only solution. Avoiding dehydration is the main challenge in this disease. Maintaining hygiene and disinfecting measures are equally important to avoid contamination. Rotavirus vaccination also does not ensure full proof against the disease but it definitely makes the symptoms less severe.

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P
Proctitis

Proctitis is inflammation of the lining of the rectum. The rectum is a muscular tube that's connected to the end of your colon. Stool passes through the rectum on its way out of the body. 
Proctitis can cause rectal pain, diarrhea, bleeding and discharge, as well as the continuous feeling that you need to have a bowel movement. Proctitis symptoms can be short-lived, or they can become chronic.
Proctitis is common in people who have inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis). Sexually transmitted infections are another frequent cause. Proctitis also can be a side effect of radiation therapy for certain cancers.


Symptoms

  • A frequent or continuous feeling that you need to have a bowel movement
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Passing mucus through your rectum
  • Rectal pain
  • Pain on the left side of your abdomen
  • A feeling of fullness in your rectum
  • Diarrhea
  • Pain with bowel movements

Causes

  • Inflammatory bowel disease. About 30% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) have inflammation of the rectum.
  • Infections. Sexually transmitted infections, spread particularly by people who engage in anal intercourse, can result in proctitis. Sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis include gonorrhea, genital herpes and chlamydia. Infections associated with foodborne illness, such as salmonella, shigella and campylobacter infections, also can cause proctitis.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at your rectum or nearby areas, such as the prostate, can cause rectal inflammation. Radiation proctitis can begin during radiation treatment and last for a few months after treatment. Or it can occur years after treatment.
  • Antibiotics. Sometimes antibiotics used to treat an infection can kill helpful bacteria in the bowels, allowing the harmful Clostridium difficile bacteria to grow in the rectum.
  • Diversion proctitis. Proctitis can occur in people following some types of colon surgery in which the passage of stool is diverted from the rectum to a surgically created opening (stoma).
  • Food protein-induced proctitis. This can occur in infants who drink either cow's milk- or soy-based formula. Infants breast-fed by mothers who eat dairy products also may develop proctitis.
  • Eosinophilic proctitis. This condition occurs when a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the rectum. Eosinophilic proctitis affects only children younger than 2.

Risk factors

  • Unsafe sex
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Radiation therapy for cancer

Complications

  • Anemia
  • Ulcers
  • Fistula

Diagnosis

  • Stool test
  • Blood test
  • Scope exam of the last portion of the colon
  • Scope exam of the entire colon
  • Test for sexually transmitted disease

Treatment
Treatment for proctitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation.
For proctitis caused by infection

  • Antibiotics
  • Antivirals

For proctitis caused by radiation therapy

  • Medication
  • Stool softeners
  • Treatment to destroy damage tissues

For proctitis caused by inflammatory bowel disease

  • Medications to control rectal inflammation
  • Surgery
     

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P
Pouchitis

Pouchitis is a disease that develops inflammation in the lining of a pouch created during conducting a surgery to treat ulcerative colitis or some other diseases. 

Symptoms 
Signs of Pouchitis usually includes: 

  • Abdominal Pain 
  • Bloody Stool
  • Diarrhea
  • Losing control over bowel movements
  • Joint pain 
  • Fever
  • Belly Cramps

Cause
This disease do not develop naturally. It occurs after a surgery related to ulcerative colitis and some other surgical procedures. 

Diagnosis 
Pouchitis can be diagnosed from symptoms but to confirm the disease, doctors may order imaging tests like CT scan or MRI.  Endoscopy is another confirmatory test for this IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease).

Treatment 
Various medications are used to treat Pouchitis. Diet planning with less vegetables and more protein supplement helps improve the condition.

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P
Peritonitis

Peritonitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the peritoneum a silky membrane that line abdominal wall and also covers the organs within the abdomen. It is an infectious disease that may often turn to be life-threatening.  Peritonitis are of two types: Spontaneous Bacterial   Peritonitis and Secondary Peritonitis. 

Symptoms 
Here are the common symptoms of Peritonitis:

  • Bloating    
  • Fever
  • Nausea and Vomiting    
  • Low urine output
  • Abdominal pain    
  • Unusual feeling of thirst
  • Diarrhea    
  • Fatigue

Cause 
The following conditions may develop Peritonitis: 

  • Abdominal wound or injury 
  • Kinney or Liver failure
  • Ruptured Appendix 
  • Stomach ulcer 
  • Pancreatitis
  • Diverticulitis 
  • Perforated colon 
  • Infection of gallbladder, intestine or bloodstream 
  • Pelvic inflammatory Disease 
  • Crohn’s Disease 
  • Invasive surgical or treatment procedure 
     

Diagnosis 

Peritonitis is diagnosed by checking symptoms, medical history and physical examination. To confirm the disease doctors prescribe the following tests: 

  • Blood 
  • Urine 
  • Imaging tests like X-ray and CT scan 
  • Exploratory surgery 
     

Treatment 
Medications are used to treat Peritonitis. 
 

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M
Mesenteric ischemia

Mesenteric ischemia develops when blocked arteries restrict or cutoff blood flow to the small intestine.  This condition can damage the intestine permanently. Mesenteric ischemia is of two types acute and chronic. 

Symptoms 
Symptoms for acute Mesenteric Ischemia include: 

  • Sudden and severe pain in the abdomen
  • Feeling of urgent need of bowel movement
  • Nausea and vomiting tendency 

Symptoms of chronic Mesenteric Ischemia are: 

  • Abdominal pain that usually starts within 30 minutes after eating 
  • Pain intensifies over an hour
  • Pains slowly subsides within two or three hours

Cause 
Mesenteric Ischemia, both acute and chronic occurs due blockage in the artery that decreases blood flow to the intestine. Usually, blood clot in the main mesenteric artery develops acute Mesenteric Ischemia. Often the clot originally forms in the heart. But in chronic Mesenteric Ischemia most of the times build up plaques narrow the arteries and restricts blood circulation in the intestine.  

Diagnosis 
To determine Mesenteric Ischemia in a patient, doctors might prescribe the following test: 

  • Angiography
  • Doppler Ultrasound  

Treatment 
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia requires immediate surgery. In case of chronic Mesenteric Ischemia a balloon is used to inflate the narrowed artery through a procedure. 
 

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G
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

GERD or Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic digestive disease. In this condition contents of stomach often flow backward up through the food pipe and causes irritation in the lining of this pipe known as esophagus. Acid reflux, heartburn and Acid indigestion are the other names commonly used for this disease.

Symptoms

 

Signs of GERD include;

 

  • Frequent heartburn
  • Stomach’s contents, acid or bile flows into the esophagus.  Irritation in the lining of esophagus.
  • Burning chest pain
  • Aggravated pain after eating
  • Discomfort usually worsens when lying down
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sore Throat
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Bad breath

 

Cause

GERD occurs in the following conditions:

The function of lower esophageal sphincter or LES is to relax and open up helping swallowing food. But if it opens up when you are not having food it initiates this backwash.  

  • Eating a large meal
  • Eating certain foods like chocolates, citrus fruits, spicy or junk food items or peppermint.
  • Being overweight also creates pressure on the abdomen.  
  • Side effects from some typical medications.  
  • Smoking, drinking or consuming carbonated beverages.

Being pregnant that usually increases risk for GERD.  .

  • Eating late without time gap before going to bed
  • Lying flat immediately after eating

 

Diagnosis

Primarily, GERD is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms.  

But to confirm GERD, doctors may prescribe the following diagnostic tests:

  • Upper Endoscopy 
  • Esophageal pH and Impedance Monitoring 
  • Bravo Wireless Esophageal pH Monitoring 
  • Esophageal Manometry 
  • Upper Digestive System X-Ray 

 

Treatment

To GERD, medical professionals usually recommend lifestyle changes, which include avoiding certain foods, focusing on eating smaller meals, and taking meals a couple of hours before going to bed.

Medication and home remedies also work effectively in managing GERD.

If nothing works then only in few rare cases surgical processes are recommended. 

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Z
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas or the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin, which causes your stomach to produce too much acid.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may occur at any time in life, but people usually find out they're affected between ages 20 and 60. Medications to reduce stomach acid and heal the ulcers are the usual treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Symptoms

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Burning, aching, gnawing or discomfort in your upper abdomen
  • Acid reflux and heartburn
  • Burping
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bleeding in your digestive tract
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Decreased appetite

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is yet unknown. The syndrome begins when  there are one or more tumor (gastrinomas) formation in the pancreas or duodenum or at other sites adjacent to the pancreas.

Anyone can get his disease. But, some people get it due to inherited condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Children of adults with MEN1 are at a  greater risk of developing the disease. It is more common in male population often those between 30 and 50 years old.

The tumors that occur with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome are made up of cells that secrete large amounts of the hormone gastrin. Increased gastrin makes the stomach produce far too much acid. The excess acid leads to peptic ulcers and can become cancerous (malignant).

Diagnosis

  • Checking the patient’s medical history
  • Blood tests to check gastrin levels
  • Endoscopy
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound
  • Imaging tests like CT Scan or MRI

Treatment

Surgery is the main treatment for gastrinoma and it's usually the only treatment that can cure it. But surgery isn't always possible. Some gastrinomas may have already started to spread when they are diagnosed. The patient might have treatment to control the symptoms if the surgery is not possible.

In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome excess acid production can be effectively controlled by medications.

 

 

In some cases, doctors advise other treatments to control tumor growth, which comprises the following:

  • Removing as much of a liver tumor as possible (debulking)
  • Attempting to destroy the tumor by cutting off the blood supply (embolization) or by using heat to destroy cancer cells (radiofrequency ablation)
  • Injecting drugs into the tumor to relieve cancer symptoms
  • Using chemotherapy to try to slow tumor growth
  • Having a liver transplant

 

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F
Fatty Liver

Fatty Liver disease indicates excessive accumulation of fat in one’s Liver. Major risk factors include obesity and type 2 diabetes, though it's also associated with excessive alcohol consumption. 
It usually causes no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they include fatigue, weight loss and abdominal pain. Treatment involves controlling the risk factors. Although a benign condition, but in some patients, it can progress to cirrhosis of Liver or Liver failure.

Types

Fatty liver disease is categorized as Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatic steatosis  and the other type is called  Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Heavy drinking causes the latter. 
 

Symptoms
NAFLD symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite and nausea
  • Pain or discomfort in the upper right abdomen

NASH advance symptoms include:

  • Abdominal swelling (ascites)
  • Enlarged blood vessels just beneath the skin's surface
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Red palms
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

Causes

It is not yet identified that why some people accumulate fat in the liver while others do not. Similarly, there is limited understanding of why some fatty livers develop inflammation that progresses to cirrhosis. Causes of both NAFLD and NASH are related to the following:

  • Overweight or obesity
  • Insulin resistance, in which your cells don't take up sugar in response to the hormone insulin
  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia), indicating pre diabetes or type 2 diabetes
  • High levels of fats, particularly triglycerides, in the blood

Risk Factors

A wide range of diseases and conditions can increase the  risk of NAFLD, including:

  • High cholesterol
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Sleep apnea
  • Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
  • Underactive pituitary gland (hypopituitarism)

Complications

  • The liver becomes inflamed (swollen), which damages its tissue. 
  • Scar tissue forms where the liver is damaged. This is called fibrosis.
  • Extensive scar tissue replaces healthy tissue leading to cirrhosis of the liver.

Diagnosis

In order to detect fatty liver several blood tests like liver function test, liver enzymes, lipid profile, viral hepatitis to name a few and imaging tests like USG, CT Scan or MRI can be advised.
 

Treatment

Basically life style changes are required to control Fatty Liver. The first line of treatment is usually weight loss through a combination of a healthy diet and exercise. Losing weight addresses the conditions that contribute to NAFLD. For those who have cirrhosis due to NASH, liver transplantation may be an option.
 

Prevention

  • Healthy diet
  • Control weight gain
  • Regular exercise

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E
Elevated liver enzymes 


Elevated liver enzymes 

Elevated liver enzymes can ooccur due to some factors like liver diseases, certain medical conditions, medications and infections. Inflamed cells of liver release abnormally higher amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream. This reflects as elevated liver enzymes in blood tests.

Most commonly found  elevated liver enzymes are – ALT, ALP. GGT. Elevated liver enzymes might be discovered during routine blood test. In most cases, liver enzyme levels are only mildly and temporarily elevated and don't signal  a serious liver problem.

Symptoms

  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine 
  • Fatigue 
  • Itching
  • Jaundice 
  • Light-colored stools
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Nausea and vomiting.


Causes

A number of diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. More common causes of elevated liver enzymes include:

  • Effects of some medications 
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Heart failure
  • Hepatitis of different types
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Obesity
  • Autoimmune hepatitis 
  • Celiac disease 
  • Liver cancer
  • Thyroid disorders


Diagnosis

Blood tests like Liver Function Test usually determine the elevated levels of enzymes.

Treatment

 Treatment depends on what is causing one’s liver enzymes to be elevated. The treatment will focus on managing the underlying condition causing the increased levels of AST or ALT levels due to Fatty liver disease, Metabolic syndrome, Hepatitis and other conditions.

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L
Liver Hemangioma


Liver Hemangioma is a non cancerous (benign) mass in the liver made up of a tangle of blood vessels. These liver masses are common. In most cases liver hemangiomas are found during an imaging study done for some other reasons. People having a liver hemangioma rarely experience any symptom and hardly need treatment. There's no evidence that an untreated liver hemangioma can lead to liver cancer.

Symptoms

When a liver hemangioma develops signs and symptoms, they may include:

  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Feeling full after eating only a small amount 
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


Causes

The causes of  a liver hemangiomais not known. For some persons it could be congenital. In most people, a liver hemangioma will not grow in size and never cause any symptoms. But some people may experience discomfort and require treatment. 

  • Risk Factors
  • Middle age
  • Being a female
  • Pregnancy
  • Hormone replacement therapy

Diagnosis

  • Ultrasound
  • CT Scan / MRI
  • Scintigraphy – a type of nuclear imaging


Treatment

Although in most cases of Hemangioma do not require treatment but for other cases treatment options include the following :

  • Surgery to remove the liver hemangioma
  • Surgery to remove part of the liver, including the hemangioma.
  • Procedures to stop blood flow to the hemangioma
  • Liver transplant surgery in case  there is a very  large hemangioma or multiple hemangiomas 
  • Radiation therapy to damage the cells of the hemangioma. This treatment is rarely used because of the availability of safer and more-effective treatments.

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P
Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis

This condition is inflammation of pancreas. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that is located behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help control the processing of blood sugar.

Pancreatitis is of two types – acute and chronic. Acute Pancreatitis may start suddenly and become life threatening. Chronic Pancreatitis can develop over many years. It has many causes, including gallstones and, heavy alcohol use. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Treatment usually requires hospitalisation. 

Symptoms

The symptoms vary depending on the type of Pancreatitis.

Acute Pancreatitis symptoms include –

  • Severe Upper abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain that spreads to the back
  • Tenderness when touching the abdomen
  • Fever
  • Rapid pulse
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Chronic Pancreatitis symptoms include –

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain that aggravates after eating
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Oily, smelly stools

Causes

Conditions that can lead to acute pancreatitis include:

  • Gallstones
  • Alcoholism
  • Certain medications
  • High triglyceride levels in the blood 
  • High calcium levels in the blood 
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Abdominal surgery
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Infection
  • Injury to the abdomen
  • Obesity
  • Trauma


Risk Factors

  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Family history of pancreatitis. 
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Complications
  • Breathing problem
  •  Infection
  • Kidney failure
  • Malnutrition
  • Diabetes
  • Pancreatic cancer 

Diagnosis

  • Blood tests to look for elevated levels of pancreatic enzymes
  • Abdominal ultrasound 
  • CT Scan /  MRI
  • Endoscopic ultrasound 
  •  Stool tests in chronic Pancreatitis

Treatment

Initial treatment at the hospital includes medication, IV Fluid  and other procedures like fluid extraction from the Pancreas.

 

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S
Small bowel prolapse

Small bowel prolapse

Small Bowel Prolapse, also called enterocele occurs when the small intestine (small bowel) descends into the lower pelvic cavity and pushes the top part of the vagina, creating a bulge. The word "prolapse" means to slip or fall out of place.

Childbirth, aging and other processes that put pressure on the pelvic floor may weaken the muscles and ligaments that support pelvic organs, causing the risk of small bowel prolapsed. To manage small bowel prolapse, self-care measures and other nonsurgical options are often effective. In severe cases surgery may be required.

Causes

  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • Chronic constipation or straining with bowel movements
  • Chronic cough or bronchitis
  • Repeated heavy lifting
  • Being overweight or obese

Symptoms

  • A pulling sensation in the pelvis that eases when one lie down
  • A feeling of pelvic fullness, pressure or pain
  • Low back pain that decreases when lying down
  • A soft bulge of tissue in the vagina
  • Vaginal discomfort 


Diagnosis

Diagnostic options  besides the Pelvic examination by the doctor include - Cystoscopy and imaging tests like USG, MRI or CT Scan.

Treatment

  • Observation -  Simple self-care measures, such as exercises called Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic muscles, may provide symptom relief. 
  • Pessary. A silicone, plastic or rubber device inserted into the vagina supports the bulging tissue. 
  • Surgery - A surgeon can perform surgery to repair the prolapse through the vagina or abdomen, with or without robotic assistance. 
  • A small bowel prolapse usually doesn't recur. However risk factors like  constipation, coughing, obesity or heavy lifting have to be guarded,

Prevention

  • Control excess weight
  • Prevent constipation
  • Treat a chronic cough to lessen pressure on abdomen
  • Quit smoking because  smoking contributes to chronic coughing.
  • Avoid Lifting heavy objects 

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B
Bile Duct Disease

Primary Bilary Cholangitis or Bile duct disease  is a chronic condition in which the bile ducts in the  liver are slowly destroyed. When bile ducts become damaged, bile can accumulate in  the liver, causing damage to liver cells. Chronic inflammation in the liver can lead to bile duct damage, irreversible.

Symptoms

  • Dry eyes and mouth
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Swelling of the spleen
  • Fatigue
  • Itchy skin
  • Weight loss
  • Bone, muscle or joint (musculoskeletal) pain
  • Swollen feet and ankles
  • Buildup of fluid in the abdomen due to liver failure (ascites)
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Darkening of the skin that's not related to sun exposure
  • Weak and brittle bones
  • High cholesterol
  • Diarrhea

Causes

It's not clear what causes primary biliary cholangitis. Many experts consider it an autoimmune disorder.. Researchers believe this autoimmune response may be triggered by environmental and genetic factors. Infections, toxins and environmental factors may have an influence.

Diagnosis

  • Blood tests like Liver Function test, Anti body test
  • Imaging tests like USG, Fibro Scan, MRCP, MRE

Treatment

Treatment basically includes medication and life style remedies.

 

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C
Celiac disease

 Celiac disease is a digestive auto immune disorder which occurs due to an adverse immune reaction to gluten.  Gluten is a protein found in certain grains as barley, wheat or rye. Another name of Celiac disease is Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy. When a Gluten sensitive person eats food such as Roti made of wheat he suffers from symptoms like indigestion or diarrhea. Prolonged suffering from this complication can damage one’s small intestine. Celiac Disease is a complex multi-system disorder that can affect other organs too.

 It may start from childhood and one may suffer from this issue for many years until it is finally diagnosed. The best way to control the symptoms is to eat Gluten - free food all through the life.

Signs and Symptoms

For some people there is no symptom. But in most cases people experience the following symptoms ;

  • Diarrhea
  • Acidity, flatulence, nausea
  • Anaemia
  • Calcium or Vitamin Ddeficiency due to improper absorption of food
  • Growth problem in cases of children as they cannot absorb the nutrients
  • Muscle cramps, joint pain and decay in dental enamel
  • Tingling sensation in the hands and legs due to nerve damage
  • Skin disorders

How to detect?

Before starting a gluten-free diet one should ensure that he is really a Celiac disease patient. The following two blood tests can help

  • Serology testing
  •  Genetic testing

When the test results  indicate  Celiac disease an Endoscopy will be done to assess the damage in one’s small intestine.  

Treatment

The only way to control Celiac disease is to strictly avoid all food containing Gluten. This effort should be life long.

A dietitian’s guidance is essential to know about a healthy gluten-free diet. Even a trace of gluten in the food can be harmful.

Gluten in a disguised form in foods, medications and other products require to be discarded.

  • Preservatives
  • Over-the-counter medications
  • Vitamin supplements
  • Herbal and nutritional supplements
  • Lipstick products
  • Toothpaste and mouthwash
  • Envelope and stamp glue
  • Play dough

Discarding gluten altogether from the diet will reduce inflammation in the patient’s small intestine and this will lead to healing.




 

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C
Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late – stage liver disease. In this disease healthy liver tissues get replaced with scar tissues and the liver becomes permanently damaged which cannot be reversed. Most of the times in Cirrhosis, the liver does not show any sign at the early stage. It is detected while doing a routine blood test or a check-up for some other complication.

Symptoms

  • At early stage of this disease the symptoms include the following issues.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • unexplained weight loss
  • In an advance stage the following health issues are common:
  • Jaundice
  • Itchy skin
  • Swelling in the feet, ankle and legs
  • Fluid build-up in the abdomen
  • Confusion and Difficulty in thinking

Causes

  • Here are the primary causes that creates cirrhosis:
  • Excess consumption of alcohol.
  • Fatty lever
  • Hepatitis
  • Irregular lifestyle
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Injecting drug with common needles

Diagnosis

To confirm cirrhosis, doctors may prescribe the following tests that includes:  

Blood Tests.

The specific blood tests will help detecting the condition of the liver. Existence of as excess bilirubin, or certain enzymes will indicate malfunctioning of liver or liver damage. To assess kidney function, Level of creatinine will help assessing kidney functioning. Blood tests will also reveal if the patient is suffering from the hepatitis viruses. The international normalized ratio (INR) will provide condition of blood's ability to clot.

From these tests the underlying cause of Cirrhosis will be assessed and at the same time the severity of the disease will be detected also.

Imaging tests.Usually, Magnetic Resonance Elastographyor MRE is recommended. This is a non-invasive advanced imaging test used for assessing how far the liver has become hardened or stiffened. In addition to this, various other imaging tests, like MRI, CT scan or ultrasound, are often prescribed.

Biopsy. Sometimes a biopsy is conducted both for diagnosis and also for identifying the severity, and the underlying cause of cirrhosis.

Treatment

The line of treatment for cirrhosis largely depends on the underlying cause and also on the extent of the liver damage. Treatment process mainly focuses on slowing down the progression of the scar tissues in the liver. It also provides solutions to prevent, control and tackle symptoms and complications.

If the cirrhosis is caused by excessive alcohol consumption, a treatment plan to stop alcohol dependency will be started. In case of non-alcoholic patients possible cause of fatty liver over weight and blood sugar control will minimize the symptoms. If hepatitis is detected, medications to control that disease will automatically will delay the progression of the cirrhosis also.  

If the patient suffers from other complications like accumulation of excess fluid in the body or develops varices or portal hypertension or any other side infections the doctors will treat them separately to improve the patient’s condition and try to keep him or her away from the risk of cancer.  

However, in case of severe liver damage, hospitalization may become absolute necessary.


 

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C
Constipation

Constipation is a condition in which a patient faces difficulties in bowels movements. Usually, less than three bowel movements in a span of 7 days are common among people suffering with this symptom.

Symptoms

  • Symptoms of constipation are as follows:
  • Difficulty in bowel movement    
  • Hard and lumpy stool
  • Feeling pain during bowel movement  
  • Feeling of blockage in the rectum during bowels movement
  • Bloating feeling
  • Discomfort and abdominal pain

Cause

  • Common causes of constipation include:
  • Dehydration
  • Lack of dilatory fiber  
  • After effect of certain medications
  • Anxiety, depression or inactive lifestyle  
  • Constipation is developed for some underlying diseases also such as blockage in the colon or rectum, problems with the nerves related to colon and rectum or inability of the muscles in eliminating the waste or losing hormonal balance for some other disease.  

Diagnosis

  • To diagnose the causes of constipation doctors take help of the following tests:
  • Blood test
  • X-ray
  • Sigmoidoscopy (examination of rectum and lower or sigmoid colon)
  • Colonoscopy (Examination of the rectum and the entire colon)
  • Anorectal manometry (Evaluation of anal sphincter muscle function)
  • Balloon Expulsion Test (Evaluation of anal sphincter muscle speed)
  • colonic transit study (Evaluation of how well food moves through the colon)

Treatment

Treatment of constipation involves change in food and life style with additional support of laxatives and medicines. If other options do not improve the condition and there is a blockage in the rectum a surgery is the only solution.


 

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C
Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease commonly called IBD. In this disease inflammation occurs in the lining of digestive tract and develops abdominal pain, diarrhea, and other serious conditions. Crohn's disease can affect different parts of the digestive tract in different patients.

Symptoms

Crohn’s disease has no permanent cure. But treatment can control it. Usually it has flare up and remission stages. Remission period can last for one year also but comes back again.  The symptoms may include the following issues:

  • Severe diarreah
  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain and cramp    
  • Bloating
  • Malnutrition    
  • Anal fistula
  • Weight loss
  • Anal fissures
  • Loss of appetite    
  • Rectal Bleeding

Causes

The exact cause of Crohn’s disease is not identified but it is believed hereditary factor, autoimmune disease and smoking increases the risk of getting it.

Diagnosis

Doctors usually suspect Crohn’s disease from the chronic symptoms. But to determine this disease the following tests are ordered:  

  • Blood test  
  • CT scan
  • Stool test  
  • GI Endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • GI Exam

Treatment

Crohn’s disease is usually treated with antibiotics, biologics, and anti-diarrheal medicines.  Doctors also use other medicines like corticosteroids and immune modulators. Bowel rest is another process to provide rest to the intestine. In this period food is totally stopped supplemented by intravenous nutrition. Sometimes surgery is also prescribed to treat other complications caused by this disease.  

 

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D
Diarrhea

Diarrhea is usually caused by a virus, or sometimes, contaminated food. Sometimes it can be a sign of another disorder, such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome.The symptoms include frequent, loose, watery stools and stomach pain.

Most cases it heals on its own. Some infections may need antibiotics. Severe cases can cause enough dehydration to require intravenous fluids.

Symptoms

  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps or pain
  • Fever
  • Blood in the stool
  • Mucus in the stool
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement

Causes

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria and parasites
  • Effects of certain Medications
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Partial intestine or gallbladder removal surgeries
  • Digestive disorders like like IBS, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

Complications

Diarrhea can lead to life-threatening   dehydration. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weakened immune systems. If there is any sign of serious dehydration  medical help is immediately required.

Diagnosis

  • Certain investigations can help diagnose the cause of diarrhea
  • Blood test
  • Stool test
  • Hydrogen breath test
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
  • Upper endoscopy

Treatment

  • Medication
  • Replacement of fluid
  • Treatment of the underlying cause

 

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F
Fistula

Fistula is a painful condition that abnormally connects two organs in the body. In this disease an organ or blood vessel may get connected with another structure.

Types

Fistula can be classified into four types that include:

  1. Anal Fistula or Perianal Fistula
  2. Urinary Track Fistula
  3. EnteroenteralFistual
  4. EnterocutaneousFistual

Symptoms

Symptoms of fistula varies depending on what type of fistula it is.

Here are some common signs:

  • Continuous urine leakage from vagina
  • Irritation in the female genital parts
  • Frequent urinary tract infection
  • Fluid leakage from vagina
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain

Causes

Usually, fistula occurs after a surgery or an injury. Often it appears as a result of inflammation due to an infection also.  Cohn’s disease or Tuberculosis may develop this condition.

Diagnosis

Doctors can diagnose Fistula by physical examination. If required they may prescribe anoscopy, ultrasound or MRI. In specific cases patients need to undergo examination in the OT anaesthesia.  

Treatment

Treatment of Fistula depends on type and severity. However it may include the following options:

  • Non-invasive procedure
  • Surgery
  • Medications  






 

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G
Gallstone

Gallstones are stony deposits that form out of a digestive fluid in one’s gallbladder. Gallbladder stores and releases a digestive fluid produced by liver called bile. It is released into the small intestine to aid digestion. The bile also carries wastes like bilirubin or Cholesterol. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ just under the liver. Gallstones can vary in size and number and may or may not cause symptoms.

When gallstones cause pain and other symptoms gallbladder removal surgery is required. Gallstones in many cases don't show up any symptom and treatment is not called for.

Symptoms

  • Sudden and rapidly aggravated pain in the upper right abdomen or in the center
  • Gallstone pain lasts several minutes to a few hours.
  • Back pain between the shoulder blades
  • Pain in the right shoulder
  • Indigestion and acidity
  • Nausea and vomiting

Causes

  • Excess cholesterol in the bile:   If liver excretes more cholesterol than the bile can dissolve, the excess cholesterol can turn into stones.
  • Excess bilirubin in the bile:  Certain diseases like biliary tract infection or some blood disorders may cause the liver to produce excess bilirubin which leads to gallstone formation.
  • Gallbladder not properly emptied:  If  gallbladder doesn't empty the bile content fully, it may become very concentrated and finally lead to formation of gallstones.

Types of gallstones

Cholesterol gallstones –The most common type and looks yellow in color. These are formed mainly out of excess cholesterol deposit.

Pigment gallstones – These are formed out of excess bilirubin and are dark brown or black in colour.

Risk Factors

  • Women mostly have this
  • People over 40 years
  • Obesity
  • Eating high-fat food regularly
  • High-cholesterol diet
  • Low-fiber intake
  • Sedentary life style
  • Family history of gallstones
  • Diabetes
  • Patients of liver disease
  • Certain blood disorders
  • Oral contraceptives or hormone therapy drugs

Complications

The following complications can cause severe pain, vomiting, fever and immediate hospitalization.

  • Inflammation of the gallbladder
  • Blockage of the common bile duct
  • Blockage of the pancreatic duct
  • Gallbladder cancer

Diagnosis

Abdominal ultrasound -The most common  method to detect gallstones.

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - This procedure is advised to identify very small stones which may not be visible clearly  in an abdominal ultrasound.

Imaging test options  -  Oral cholecystography, HIDA scan, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Gallstones detected using ERCP can be removed during the procedure.

Blood tests – Certain blood tests can find out infection, jaundice, pancreatitis or other complications arising out of gallstones effect.

Treatment

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy - This is the most common surgical procedure for  removal of gallstones and gallbladder.

Open cholecystectomy - Sometimes  open surgery is required.

ERCP -  If gallstones are in one’s bile ducts  it can be removed during the procedure.

Medications - Medications for  dissolving gallstones aren't commonly used and are reserved for people who can't undergo surgery. It may take very prolonged treatment to dissolve gallstones in this way and may recur when the medications are stopped.

Prevention

  • Avoid being in empty stomach for long time
  • Lose weight slowly
  • Eat fiber- rich diet
  • Maintain healthy weight



 

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H
Hepatitis -Types

Hepatitis is a serious viral disease that usually develops from contaminated food or water. This disease causes inflammation of liver that affects normal functions of this vital organ. There are 5 types of hepatitis classified as A, B, C, D and E. The most common forms are A, B, and C.  

Symptoms

Symptoms of Hepatitis A include:

Fever, loss of appetite, jaundice and severe illness

Symptoms of Hepatitis B

Fever, Jaundice, joint pain, stomach trouble, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, belly pain, and fatigue

Often, chronic hepatitis B does not show any symptoms.  

Symptoms of Hepatitis C include

Bleeding easily, bruising easily, Jaundice, loss of appetite, fatigue, itchy skin fluid build-up in the abdomen, swollen feet, weight loss, drowsiness and confusion.

Causes

Hepatitis A is caused by hepatitis A virus.  It occurs when someone comes in close contact with an affected person or gets infected through contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus. It spreads from one person to another in different ways such as sex, using common needle, or accidental needle prick or from mother to an unborn child.

Hepatitis C is caused by hepatitis C virus. This is transmitted from one person to another only through blood contact.  

Diagnosis

To diagnose hepatitis A, B, and C doctors take help of the following processes:

  • Physical examination    
  • MRI
  • blood tests
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound  
  • Biopsy
  • Transient Elastography  

Treatment

  • Hepatitis A is a disease that often goes away in the natural way and does not require medication. But Hepatitis B and c are serious diseases with long term impact on health.
  • To treat hepatitis B and C anti - viral medications are used. Adequate rest and care is equally important to fight the disease.


 

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H
Hernia

Hernia occurs when a fatty tissue oran organ bulges out through an abnormal opening in the surrounding tissue layer or muscle that holds it in the right place.

Most of the times, hernias occur in the abdomen, usually between the chest and hips. But it can occur in other areas like upper thigh or groin areas.

Hernia is not life threatening disease but often it requires surgery to prevent the patient from other serious complications.

Types

There are different types of hernias. The common ones are listed below.

Inguinal hernia

This type of hernia occurs when the intestines comes out through a weakened tissue in the inguinal canal or lower abdominal wall.

Hiatal hernia

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of the stomach pushes up through the diaphragm wall of the chest cavity. itoccurs after a certain age.

Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernias appear when the intestines comes up through the abdominal wall. This usually happens to babies. In this type, a lump is noticed near the belly button.

Ventral hernia

A ventral hernia is detected when tissue bulges out through a weakened opening in the muscles of abdomen. In ventral hernia, the lump size decreases in size when the patient is lying down.

Symptoms

Common symptom of a hernia:

  • Lump in the affected area.
  • Sometimes the lump disappears lying down position.
  • The lump becomes prominent in bending down, or coughing.
  • Discomfort or pain in the area around the lump.
  • In some specific types of hernia like hiatal hernias, patient may feel heartburn, trouble swallowing, or chest pain.
  • Sometimes Hernia does not any symptom at all

Cause

Usually, muscle weakness and strain or a combination of both cause this disease.

Here are some common causes of muscle weakness or strain that may develop hernia:

  • A congenital condition, which exists in a body from its foetus stage.
  • A damage caused from an injury or surgery
  • Strenuous exercise or lifting heavy weights.
  • Chronic coughing
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
  • Pregnancy, or multiple pregnancies.
  • Constipation.
  • Obesity
  • Ascites

Diagnosis

Doctors follow the below mentioned measures to detect a hernia.

  • Physical examination.
  • Medical history
  • Abdominal ultrasound.
  • Abdominal CT scan
  • Abdominal MRI scan.
  • Other tests that allow the medical professionals check the inside of the patient’s stomach
  • X-rays after taking liquid barium solution.
  • Endoscopy

Treatment

Surgical repair is the only way to treat Hernia. The decision of going for a surgery depends on the size of a hernia and also on the severity of symptoms.


 

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J
Jaundice

A higher level of bilirubin build up causes Jaundice.  It makes the skin and the whites of the eyes yellowish. It also appears in new-born babies which usually goes away naturally after a few days. In adults it indicates some problem with the lever.

Symptoms

  • Skin and the whites of the eyes turns yellow.  
  • Dark urine and pale stools
  • Itchiness
  • Fatigue
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

Cause

  • A higher level of bilirubin build up causes Jaundice.  It makes the skin and the whites of the eyes yellowish.  
  • Jaundice may appear for various reasons. Some of the common causes include:
  • Hepatitis
  • Alcohol-Related Liver Disease
  • Blocked Bile Ducts
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • After effect of certain medicines.

Diagnosis

Initially, the doctor will ask the patient a few questions to verify the symptoms and medical history as well. The patient will also undergo a physical exam. If jaundice is suspected the doctor will order a bilirubin test. A CBC (complete blood count) test will reveal a higher level of bilirubin that indicates jaundice.

If needed in addition to this other tests will be prescribed to check the condition of the patient’s liver.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for Jaundice In adults. Doctors treat the underlying cause that is responsible for this health condition. If someone has acute viral hepatitis, jaundice will automatically subside once the liver starts to heal. In case a blocked bile duct is the cause of jaundice in a patient the doctors may suggest a surgery to open it.

 

 

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L
Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a typical health condition that makes people unable to consume milk or milk products. People suffering from this cannot digest the sugar in milk. Very low level of lactase in human body is responsible for this.  Lactose intolerance is not a harmful disease but consumption of dairy products make people with this health issue extremely uncomfortable.

Symptoms

The symptoms usually begin between 30 minutes to two hours of having the foods containing lactose. The common signs include diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating and gas.

Causes

Lactose intolerance occurs when the small intestine fails to produce required level of an enzyme called lactase which helps digesting milk sugar.

Lactase breaks milk sugar into two sugar particles glucose and galactose. The intestinal lining absorbs them into the bloodstream.

People with very low level of lactase misses this process and as a result lactose in their food directly moves into the colon. Normal bacteria existing in the colon interact with undigested lactose, which creates reactions and lactose intolerance symptoms.

Diagnosis

Doctors diagnose lactose intolerance in a patient based on symptoms and responses to avoiding dairy foods from the regular diet. But to confirm it, the following tests are prescribed.

Hydrogen Breathe Test. In this process the patient is asked to drink a liquid with high levels of lactose. After that hydrogen count in the breath is tracked at regular intervals. Breathing out hydrogen at a higher level indicates the patient is unable to digest and absorb lactose.

Lactose Tolerance Test. In this process also a patient is asked to drink a liquid with high level of lactose. After two hours a blood test is conducted that measures the level of glucose in the bloodstream. If glucose level doesn't show a rise, it indicates the patient is not able to digest and absorb the lactose in the drink.

Treatment

Most of the times people with lactose intolerance manage their entire life span comfortably by avoiding dairy products or leading life on low-lactose diet. Otherwise, restoring lactase levels and controlling the symptoms is the only solution. But it takes considerable time to overcome this health problem.  

 

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M
Microscopic Colitis

Microscopic Colitis is a chronic bowel disease that causes inflammation of the large intestine, commonly called colon. It causes watery diarrhea and cramping. This disease is painful but less dangerous when compared to other bowel diseases.

Symptoms

The recurring symptoms include:

  • Watery Diarrhea
  • Pain and Cramps
  • Bloating and Nausea
  • Dehydration

Causes

The causes of this disease is not exactly identified. But several factors may be responsible in developing Microscopic Colitis. These are listed below:

  • Bacteria, toxins and viruses
  • Problem with immune system
  • Smoking
  • Regular usage of anti-inflammatory drugs, heartburn drugs or anti-depressant medications.
  • Family history

Diagnosis

Microscopic colitis is a particular type of infection that can be identified by examining the colon tissues under a microscope. The common test to determine this disease include:

  • Blood Tests
  • Stool Test
  • Imaging tests like CT, MRI and upper GI
  • Colonoscopy
  • Biopsy

Treatment

Sometimes Microscopic colitis subsides on its own. If not, doctors will ask the patient to avoid certain foods like dairy products, caffeine and other fatty foods. Smoking and medications that may develop this disease needs to be stopped.

If it does not work, doctors are likely to treat it with medications to stop diarrhea, control swelling and other symptoms.

 

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P
Peptic Ulcer

A peptic ulcer is an open sore that is developed on the lining of stomach, or the upper portion of small intestine. A peptic ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer. Similarly, a peptic ulcer that affects the duodenum or the upper part of the small intestine is called a duodenal ulcer.

Symptoms

A burning pain and discomfort in the upper part of the belly is a common sign of peptic ulcer. Usually it is felt when stomach becomes empty. After taking antacid or having a meal it may subside but again comes back and bother the patient for a considerable period of time.

  • Additional symptoms may include:
  • Bloated feeling
  • Burping
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Bloody or dark stool
  • Sometimes small ulcers also develop without showing any symptoms.

Causes

In human body digestive tract remains coated with a thin layer of mucous that normally protects it from acidic reactions. But if the body produces more than natural level of acid or the mucus fails to protect the tissues of stomach and small intestine it may develop an ulcer.

Other Common causes include:

  • Helicobacter pylori bacteria is usually a harmless bacteria exists in the mucous layer of the stomach and small intestine. But sometimes it causes inflammation of the stomach's inner layer that develops an ulcer.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection can spread from one person to another in case of close physical contact like kissing. Helicobacter pylori sets in through food and water also.
  • Often certain pain relievers or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can damage the lining of the stomach or small intestine leading to peptic ulcer.
  • Medications such as steroids, low dose aspirin or anticoagulants and some other types drugs also when taken along with these NSAIDs, are likely to increase the possibility of developing ulcers.

Diagnosis

A medical practitioner usually diagnose peptic ulcer by asking the patient about the symptoms. A physical check-up further helps detecting this disease.

But to confirm an ulcer doctors may prescribe X-Rays and endoscopy also.  

Treatment

Some peptic ulcers may heal naturally but most of the times treatment cures and stop the chance of further recurrence. Medications also prevent the ulcer from getting infected.  

Usually doctors prescribe a combination of antibiotics to kill Helicobacter pylori the main cause of getting a peptic ulcer. In case of peptic ulcer caused by regular using NSAIDs or some other drugs the patient may be advised to stop or cut down such medicines.  

Doctor may prescribe various antacids to control excess acid produced in a patient’s body along with other medicines that will heal the ulcer.

 

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P
Piles

Piles develops when the blood vessels get enlarged inside or around anus. This creates a painful condition.

Symptoms

The symptom of piles is discomfort and pain, especially while sitting or during bowel movements. Often itching and bleeding are reported as additional symptoms. Bleeding is common in first degree piles but they remain inside the body. In Second degree piles usually come out of the patient’s body during bowels movement but automatically get inside afterwards. IN third degree piles, it needs to be physically pushed back in. The fourth degree piles permanently hang outside the patient’s body and becomes extremely painful.  

Causes of piles

Piles is developedformany reasons that includes:

  • Constipation
  • Long-lasting diarrhoea
  • Old age that makes anal canal weak which may develop piles
  • Persistent cough
  • Lifting heavy objects

Diagnosis of piles

Doctors detects this disease usually by asking the patient about the symptoms. They may physically check the patient too. If necessary proctoscope is used to get a better view of the rectum.

Sometimes blood test is prescribed to find out if the patient is suffering from anaemia in case of a lot of bleeding on a regular basis.

However, if the symptoms and test results suggest there can be other causes of the symptoms, the doctor may suggests other tests also to rule out the chances of bowels cancer.

Treatment of piles

Piles, can be extremely uncomfortable which may create serious impact on your daily life. But many times it automatically goes away after a month though most of the times they come back.

  • Non-surgical treatments

There is a wide range of medicines that can relieve a patient from the recurring symptoms of piles.

Procedures

Sometimes the patient may require to have a procedure to solve the problem. In such situations going to a hospital as an out-patient for some hours is the easiest process.

Surgery

If all other treatment fails the doctors may order a surgery.  Different types of surgeries used in treatment of piles. Laser surgeries are bloodless and heals very fast.

 

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R
Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapse occurs when part of the large intestine's lowest section (rectum) slips outside the muscular opening at the end of the digestive tract (anus). While rectal prolapse may cause discomfort, it's rarely a medical emergency.

Rectal prolapse usually occurs in older women, but it can occur in men and women of any age. Risk factors include multiple births and vaginal delivery. Rectal prolapse can create an inability to control bowel movements, causing stool to leak from the rectum.

Early management includes fluids and pelvic floor exercises. Most people require surgery.

Symptoms

In case of a rectal prolapsed one may notice a reddish mass that comes out of the anus, often while straining during a bowel movement. The mass may slip back inside the anus, or it may remain visible.

Other symptoms include:

The inability to control bowel movements

Constipation or diarrhea

Leaking blood or mucus from the rectum

Feeling that the rectum isn't empty after a bowel movement

Causes

The cause for rectal prolapse is still not certain. Though it's a common assumption that rectal prolapse is associated with childbirth, but about one-third of women with the condition never had children.

Risk factors

  • Certain factors may increase the risk of developing rectal prolapsed such as:
  • Sex -  A majority of rectal prolapsed patients  are women.
  • Age - It  is more common in people over age 50.

Diagnosis

Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish rectal prolapse from hemorrhoids. To help diagnose rectal prolapse and rule out other associated conditions, your doctor may recommend:

  • Digital rectal exam
  •  Anal manometry
  • Colonoscopy
  • Defecography

Treatment

Treatment for rectal prolapse is usually  surgery. Other treatments include various therapies for constipation, including stool softeners, suppositories and other medications. There are a few different surgical methods for treating rectal prolapse.

 

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S
Short Bowel Syndrome

Short Bowel Syndrome is a disorder that prevents human system absorb enough nutrients from the food intake as there is not enough small intestine.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Short Bowel Syndrome include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Greasy and foul smelling stool
  • Fatigue
  • Mal nutrition
  • Weight loss
  • Swelling in the lower extremities

Causes

Short Bowel Syndrome occurs in following cases:

  • A portion of small intestine is removed by surgery
  • A portion of small intestine is damages at the time of birth

Diagnosis

To diagnose Short Bowel Syndrome doctors order blood and stool tests. To confirm they may also prescribe the following tests:

  • Barium-X-ray,
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • CT or MR enterography

Treatment

Treatment of Short Bowel Syndrome may vary depending on what part of the intestine is damaged and if the colon is intact. However, the treatment process include:

  • Medications
  • Nutritional therapy
  • Surgery  

 

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S
SIBO

SIBO or Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is a serious disease of small intestine. Accumulation of a large number of the bacterial population in the small intestine develops this condition. In this infection, pain in the abdomen and diarrhea becomes the primary complain. The bacteria use up the body’s nutrients and lead to malnutrition.

Symptoms

Here are the main symptoms of SIBO:

SIBO symptoms mainly affect the gut. Symptoms may include:

  • Stomach pain
  • bloating
  • cramps
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • indigestion
  • gas
  • Weight loss

Causes

The causes that increases the chance of getting SIBO are as follows

  • Anatomic abnormalities in small bowel
  • Gastroparesis
  • The pH changes in the small bowel  
  • Nerve damage
  • Problem with immune system  
  • Cirrhosis
  • Malfunctioning of the muscular activity of the small intestine
  • Portal hypertension
  • Viral gastroenteritis, or a stomach bug
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • Celiac disease or Crohn’s disease  
  • Certain gastric bypass procedures
  • Hypochlorhydria, or low acid levels in the stomach  
  • Surgeries that cause strictures or adhesions

Diagnosis

Doctors initially check the symptoms and the medical history along with a physical examination.  To confirm SIBO the patient may need to go through blood tests, breathe tests and other tests.

Treatment

To treat SIBO, antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria in the small intestine.

A changed diet can help quick relief and fast recovery. Eating balanced and nutritious diet more frequently in small quantity works well. In many cases Gluten products are ordered to avoid.  

 

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T
Toxic Hepatitis

Toxic hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver in reaction to certain substances to which the liver is exposed. It can be caused by alcohol, chemicals, drugs or nutritional supplements. In some cases, toxic hepatitis develops within hours or days of exposure to a toxin.

Symptoms

Mild forms of toxic hepatitis may not cause any symptoms and may be detected only by blood tests. When signs and symptoms of toxic hepatitis occur, they may include:

  • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
  • Itching
  • Abdominal pain in the upper right portion of the abdomen
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Dark or tea-colored urine

Causes

Exposure to a toxic substance sometimes lead to inflammation of liver or Toxic hepatitis. The liver normally removes and breaks down most drugs and chemicals from the bloodstream. But breaking down toxins creates byproducts that can damage the liver. Although the liver has a great capacity for regeneration, yet continuous exposure to toxic substances can cause serious, sometimes irreversible harm. Some of these factors include:

  •  Heavy drinking  of  alcohol over many years
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Certain Prescription medications
  • Some Herbs and supplements
  • Exposure to  Industrial chemicals

Risk Factors

  • Already having liver ailments
  • A patient of hepatitis
  • Aging
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Having certain genetic mutations
  • Working with industrial toxins

Diagnosis

  • Physical exam
  •  Blood tests to  look for high levels of certain liver enzymes.
  • Imaging tests like CT Scan or MRI
  •  Liver biopsy

Treatment

Treatments for toxic hepatitis may include:

  • Supportive care
  • Medication to reverse liver damage caused by acetaminophen
  • Emergency care
  • Liver transplant

 

 

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T
Traveller’s Diarrhea

Traveller’s Diarrhea is an intestinal infection of caused by consuming contaminated food or water.  As the name of this disease suggests, usually it occurs as a result of visiting a place with poor public hygiene.  This is not a serious disease and most of the times it becomes manageable within a couple of days but it is extremely unpleasant.

Symptoms

Here are the symptoms of Traveller’s Diarrhea:

  • Watery stool thrice or more in a day.
  • Urgent need to defecate  
  • Abdominal pain and cramp
  • Bloating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

Causes

Traveler’sDiarrhea is caused by agents like parasite, bacteria and viruses. Stress of travelling and eating the types of food one is not used to consume may also create such a condition.

Prevention

Here are the guidelines to prevent Traveler’sDiarrhea:

  • Avoid fresh fruits when proper washing is not possible.
  • Drink bottled water and juice.
  • Take freshly cooked hot food.
  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Maintain hygiene while travelling.
  • Use bottled drinking water for brushing teeth.

Treatment

Treatment of Traveller’s Diarrhea include the following steps:

  • Using antibiotics and anti-diarrheal medicines.
  • Using ORS or oral rehydration salt solutions to prevent chance of dehydration.  
  • Rest and comfort.


 

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U
Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis is a chronic disease identified as Inflammatory Bowel Disease or IBD. In this disease the digestive track develops ulcer and inflammation.  Ulcerative Colitis can be in mild or severe form.   Usually it affects the innermost lining of the digestive track or large intestine and the rectum. This condition increases chance of developing colon cancer in future.

Symptoms

The symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis include:

  • Diarrhea with or without blood or pus
  • Abdominal pain
  • Rectal pain and bleeding
  • Feeling of urgency to defecate but inability to defecate in spite of urgency
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Weight loss

Cause

The exact cause that develops Ulcerative Colitis is not yet known. The possible causes are:

  • Malfunctioning of immune system
  • Family history
  • Environmental factors
  • Usually, people develop this disease before 30. But often it occurs even after 60 years.

Diagnosis

To confirm Ulcerative Colitis Doctors prescribe the endoscopic procedure to conduct tissue biopsy.  

But to rule out any other possibilities doctors may order the following tests:

  • Blood Tests
  • X-ray
  • Stool Tests
  • CT scan
  • Colonoscopy
  • Computerized tomography (CT) enterography
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy  
  • magnetic resonance (MR) enterography

Treatment

Ulcerative Colitis is a chronic disorder. To treat this condition doctors prescribe medication with a goal to keep the symptoms under control and to make the period of remission longer. In case of severe cases surgery is ordered. The surgery involves removing of colon and rectum both and creating an alternative new pathway for the waste to come out from the system.  

 

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W
Wilson's

Wilson's disease is a rare type of genetic disorder. In This disease, excess copper is generated in the body and gets accumulated in the liver, brain, cologne, kidney, eye and other organs.  Usually the signs of Wilson’s disease shows up between the age group of 5 to 35. However it can get detected earlier or later also.

Symptoms

Symptoms may vary from person to person. It depends on which part of the patient’s body is affected by this disease.

Most of the times the signs of this disease areeither related to brain or liver.

The symptoms include:

  • Vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Lack of appetite or abdominal pain
  • Fluid accumulation in the abdomen
  • Swelling of the legs
  • Yellowish skin
  • Itching
  • Golden-brown eye discoloration
  • Problems with speech, swallowing and physical coordination
  • Uncontrolled body movements
  • Muscle stiffness

Cause

Wilson's disease is a hereditary disease. A person gets it only if two defective genes, (one from each parent) comes to his or her body. One abnormal gene, cannot cause the disease. But it can make the person a carrier.

Diagnosis

Detecting Wilson's disease is not easy. Experienced doctors by using the most latest testing techniques can determine it in time.  Doctors prescribe blood tests and a 24-hour urine collection test and also some imaging tests of the affected organs.  Generic tests and biopsy of liver tissues are other confirmatory tests.

Treatment

Research work regarding treatment is still going on. Usually regenerative medicines are prescribed. Symptomatic treatment is another solution to keep the patient fit for a longer period of time. in case of a liver damage a doctor may suggest a liver transplant. Timely detection and taking timely actions may allow the patient survive a normal life span.

 

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Words of Appreciation

AMRI Hospitals Dhakuria | Patient Testimonial

Dr. Ranjan Mukhopadhyay
Dhakuria

Mr. Satyajit Basu was diagnosed with liver concerns and it was found that he had obesity-related difficulties. He was admitted under the supervision of Dr. Debottam Bandyopadhyay, Consultant Gastroenterologist, and Dr. Mousam De, Interventional Radiologist, and was suggested a procedure called TIPS.

Satyajit Basu
Dhakuria
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