Best Neurologist in Kolkata | Neurologists - AMRI Hospitals

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  • Brain Tumour Surgery 
  • Epileptic Surgery
  • Surgery of Brain Aneurysm
  • AVM Surgery
  • Awake Brain Surgery

Best Neurologists and Neurosurgeons in Kolkata and Bhubaneswar

The center of Neurosciences, at AMRI Hospitals has a demonstrated track record in providing highest levels of professional expertise in the varied field of Neuro diagnostics, Neurology, Neuro surgery, Neuro Anaesthesia and Interventional Neurology. We are backed by a team of the country's best neurologists & surgeons who have immense knowledge and experience in diagnosis, treatment and patient-care management. The Neurosciences Centre is committed to follow multidisciplinary approach & advanced techniques for treating life threatening & challenging neurological disorders. At AMRI Hospitals we are fully equipped to provide 24*7 comprehensive evaluation and therapeutic care to a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke, seizures, brain & spine disorders, and congenital diseases.


Brain tumour surgery with Neuronavigation:

  • Micro surgery for spinal tumour
  • Minimally invasive disc surgery
  • Head & spinal injury services
  • Neuro endoscopy & pituitary surgery
  • Microvascular surgery for AVM & Brain Aneurysm

24x7 1.5 Tesla Ambient MRI :

  • 70cm bore for comfort
  • Premium digital imaging
  • Reduced noise
  • In gantry entertainment 24x7 128 Slice CT Scan :
  • Gem stone imaging
  • Single pass cerebral DSA
  • 60% less radiation
  • 230-micron resolution

Neurophysiology :

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • electro myelogram (EMG)
  • Nerve conduction velocity test (NCV)
  • Evoked Potentials (EP)
  • Video EEG
  • Transcranial Doppler (TCD) 


Pneumatic & Electrical Drill Systems Operating Microscope of Carl Zeiss CUSA - Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator Image Intensifier • Stereotactic Frame IGRT with SRS & SRT

Introducing Deep Brain Stimulation therapy for Parkinson's disease: First time in Bhubaneswar


It is estimated that 6.3 million people have Parkinson’s disease worldwide

Diseases & Procedures
Diseases | Procedures
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reset

Dementia is loss of ability to remember, think and make logical decisions. It usually occurs at old age but it is not a normal outcome of aging. Dementia is not a specific disease but a permanent brain damage caused by various reasons. Alzheimer’s is one of the leading causes of it.  Dementia interferes with people’s ability to do the everyday activities and makes them impaired with limited social skill. 
Different people may have different symptoms while developing dementia. But generally it may include the following signs and changes.

  • Memory loss. 
  • Difficulty in making decisions, and feeling confusion
  • Deterioration in social skill 
  • Difficulty in speaking, understanding and expressing thoughts. 
  • Developing trouble with reading and writing.
  • Getting lost in a familiar neighbourhood
  • Difficulty in handling money responsibly and paying bills
  • Repetitive behaviour and asking repetitive questions.
  • Referring to familiar objects by unusual words.
  • Taking more time to complete normal daily activities.
  • Unable to handle daily activities independently.
  • Losing interest in taking care of regularlife skill activities.
  • Experiencing hallucination, delusions or developing paranoia
  • Change of behaviour, mood swing and tendency to act impulsively
  • Becoming aloof towards other people’s feelings
  • Losing balance and facing problems while making movements
  • Anxiety and withdrawal
  • Sleep disturbances.

There are many causes of dementia. The common causes are as follows: 
•    Alzheimer’s type dementia
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the main causesof Dementia.  Alzheimer’s starts with mild symptoms of forgetfulness and confusions but over the period becomes worse.  
•    Vascular Dementia
Vascular Dementia occurs after a major stroke or multiple but silent strokes. 
•    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)
Accumulation of Lewy bodies in the brain ofa person suffering from DLB develops this type of Dementia.  

•    Parkinson’s Disease
People suffering fromParkinson’s disease develops this type of Dementia after 10 years from when they have Parkinson’s for the first time.  
•    Mixed Dementia
Alzheimer’s type Dementia and Vascular type Dementia are two most common factors which jointly leads to Mixed Dementia. 
•    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) 
In FTD a person gets cell damage in a particular part of the brain results into cognitive disorders and dementia. 
•    Huntington’s Disease
This type of dementia is a hereditary brain disorder carried down through genes. The symptoms start showing up between the age group of 30 to 50. 
•    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) 
In this type of dementia, a particular protein called Prion affect other proteins and turn them into abnormal forms. This is a rare type of dementia and deteriorates the patient very quickly.
•    Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Sometimes, for several reasons, fluid gets accumulated in the brain of a person developing this type of Dementia.   
•    Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Severe thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficit creates this type of dementia in some people.
•    Dementia can develop as a result of using drug or alcohol for a long period of time.

Dementia has different stages. Depending on affected parts of the brain and the apparent symptoms it can be divided into 7 parts.  
•    Stage 1.At this stage the patient has no symptoms, only tests may detect a problem.
•    Stage 2.Slight changes may be noticed but still remains independent.
•    Stage 3. Changes becomes apparent in thinking, reasoning and doing other works. 
•    Stage 4. More problemsare facedwhile communicating and completing daily activities.
•    Stage 5. Moderately severe decline is notices. Patient faces difficulty in remembering family members’ names, confuses day and time and needs assistance in daily care activities. 
•    Stage 6.Symptoms of severe decline set in. patients at this stage requires more help at every level.
•    Stage 7.This is the worst stage of severe decline. The patient cannot speak or walk and mostly becomes bed bound.

To diagnose dementia a doctor check the patient’s history and ask questions to the patient and the family members also followed by physical exam and cognitive testing. 
The common tests for Dementia may include: 

  • Physical Tests
  • Mental Tests
  • Neuropsychological Testing
  • Lab Tests (Blood and urine tests)
  • Chest X-ray
  • Brain scanning (MRI or CT scanning)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Spinal fluid analysis
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) 
  • Position Emission Tomography (PET)

Dementia itself is not a disease but caused by other factors.To treat Dementia, doctors focus on the cause. Only 20% of these causes are reversible. Beside this treatment is conducted with a target on managing symptoms. 
If Dementia is caused due to Alzheimer’s, the doctor may prescribe medication used for this disease. To decrease amyloid plaques in the patient’s brain and controls memory loss.
Sometimes, a few medicines work effectively in preventing the progression of Dementia. But most of the times they can provide support up to a certain level and fails to stop worsening of the situation.

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Transverse myelitis

Transverse Myelitis
Transverse Myelitis  results from damage to nerve cells on both sides of a section of the  spinal cord. This neurological disorder damages the fatty tissue called Myelin which protects the nerve fibers like an insulating material. When Myelin is damaged, the spinal cord nerves can no longer send signals properly throughout body. This causes muscle weakness, pain, numbness, paralysis and bladder or bowel malfunctioning. 
Treatment for Transverse Myelitis includes medications and rehabilitative therapy. Some people have full recovery within a few months or a year, but for others long term symptoms continue. 
The specific reason for Transverse Myelitis cannot always be detected. Some risk factors are -

  • Infections – bacterial, viral or fungal 
  • Auto immune disorders 
  • Myelin disorders like Multiple Sclerosis
  • Vaccinations for infectious diseases

Symptoms of Transverse Myelitis usually occur over a few days and aggravate in a few weeks. These include –

  • Pain in the back.  
  • A sharp pain that goes down the arms and legs or around one’s chest and abdomen. Pain symptoms varies depending on the part of the spinal cord that is affected. 
  • Numbness, tingling, burning or a pins-and-needles sensation in the legs, toes or fingers. 
  • Bladder and bowel control problems 
  • Muscle spasms
  • Increased body  temperature
  • Loss of appetite


  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Blood tests  
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)  


  • Intravenous steroids
  • Plasma exchange therapy
  • Antiviral medication
  • Pain medication
  • Medications for different  complications
  • Medications to prevent recurrence 

Various therapies are opted for long-term recovery and rehabilitation.

  • Physical therapy – It  aids in improving  strength and coordination. 
  • Occupational therapy - This  teaches the patient new ways of performing daily cores like bathing, cooking or cleaning.
  • Psychotherapy – This support is provided to address problems like anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction, and other emotional or behavioral issues arising out of Transverse Myelitis.

Most of the people affected by Transverse Myelitis can be grouped into following categories -

  • No or slight disability : Patients who experience only minimal symptoms.
  • Moderate disability : Patients who are mobile but face some difficulty in walking, or have a little numbness in legs or fingers. Their bladder and bowel problems may persist. 
  • Severe disability : Patients who permanently need a wheelchair and require continuous support for daily cores.

The patients’ response to the treatment totally depends on the cause of the syndrome and how early the treatment had started. 
Early treatment and physical therapy always help.

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Transient ischemic attack TIA

It is a brief stroke-like attack that resolves within minutes to hours, but requires immediate medical attention to distinguish from an actual stroke. A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) may be a warning sign of a future stroke.
Symptoms include weakness on one side of the body, vision problems and slurred speech. These are transient and often resolve within 24 hours. Treatment includes medication, surgery and healthy lifestyle changes. A TIA provides an opportunity to prevent a major stroke in future. 
Transient ischemic attacks usually last a few minutes. Most signs and symptoms disappear within an hour, though rarely symptoms may last up to 24 hours. The signs and symptoms of a TIA resemble those found early in a stroke :

  • Weakness, numbness or paralysis in the face, arm or leg, typically on one side of the body
  • Slurred speech or difficulty understanding others
  • Blindness in one or both eyes or double vision
  • Vertigo or loss of balance or coordination

A TIA has the same origins as that of an ischemic stroke, the most common type of stroke. In an ischemic stroke, a clot blocks the blood supply to part of the brain. In a TIA, unlike a stroke, the blockage is brief, and there is no permanent damage.
The underlying cause of a TIA often is a buildup of plaques (atherosclerosis) in an artery. 
Risk Factors
Some risk factors for a TIA and stroke can't be changed. Other factors can be controlled.
Risk factors - unchangeable

  • Family history
  • Older Age
  • More males are affected
  • Prior transient ischemic attack. 
  • Sickle cell disease 

Risk factors that can be controlled

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol.
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Peripheral artery disease 
  • Diabetes
  • High levels of amino acid in the blood 
  • Excess weight

CT Scan
Carotid ultrasonography
The goal of the treatment is to prevent a stroke. Depending on the cause of the TIA, the doctor advises medication to reduce the tendency for blood to clot or may recommend surgery or an angioplasty.

  • Don't smoke
  • Limit cholesterol and fat
  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Limit sodium
  • Exercise regularly
  • Limit alcohol intake
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Don't use illicit drugs
  • Control diabetes

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Transient global amnesia

Transient Global Amnesia is a condition which refers to sudden memory loss for a temporary period of time. In this disease patients cannot remember anything related to recent events and cannot recall where he or she is or how he or she got into the place. Transient Global Amnesia has no relation with stroke, head injury or epilepsy. 
Symptoms of Transient Global Amnesia include:

  • Inability to form new memories 
  • Losing recent memories for a temporary span
  • Retention of personal identity during memory loss phase
  • Normal cognition like identifying known names, objects, and other facts. 
  • Do not show any sign of brain damage like paralysis, impaired word recognition or involuntary limb movements. 

Cause of Transient Global Amnesia is not known. It is believed this disease might have some relation with history of migraine. People above 50 years have higher chance of getting this disease. Strenuous physical work, sudden fall in hot or cold water, mental shock can be the other causes that may trigger this condition. It may also occur as an after effect of angiography or endoscopy.      
To diagnose Transient Global Amnesia doctors consider medical history and also focus on physical check-up that reveals patient’s neurological conditions. Usually, reflex, muscle tone, muscle strength, coordination, gait, sensory function are examined. To confirm Transient Global Amnesia and rule out other possibilities, the following tests are ordered:

  • MRI 
  • EEG
  • CT scan

No treatment is required in Transient Global Amnesia. This is a condition that automatically and normally gets resolved in due course of time and has no sustaining impact. 

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Thunderclap headaches

Thunderclap Headache
A thunderclap headache is a severe headache that develops rapidly all of a sudden. It is also known as lone acute headache. Usually, this extremely intense pain develops within a short span of 60 seconds. Bleeding of brain after a stroke, injury or an arterial aneurysm rupture causes this type of pain. 
Symptoms of Thunderclap headache are as follows: 

  • severe headache that occurs out of nowhere
  • nausea and vomiting
  • fainting
  • additional pain in the neck or lower back
  • Sometimes certain activities trigger the pain

Most of the times a thunderclap headache is by bleeding in the brain. This can become life-threatening if timely treatment is not provided.  treated quickly. Usually, a ruptured aneurysm in the brain causes this type of pain. Other serious causes may include:

  • Ablocked or rupturedblood vessel in the brain
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Head injury
  • Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome
  • Vasculitis that develops inflammation in brain’s blood vessel

Usually, a Thunderclap headache is diagnosed with the following tests: 

  • CT angiogram scan
  • Spinal tap
  • MRI

Treatment of Thunderclap headache depends on the cause. Doctors prescribe different types of medicines to treat the cause of this pain. In some cases surgery is also prescribed to remove the block or repair a rapture in the blood vessels in the brain.  

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Tension Headache

Tension Headache

A tension headache is the most common type of headache. It can cause mild, moderate, or intense pain behind the eyes and in the head and neck. It often headache feels like a tight band around their forehead.

There can be  number reasons behind a tension headache, including stress, inadequate sleep and poor posture. The main symptom is pain on both sides of the head. Treatments include pain relievers and other medication, stress reduction, ice or heat on sore muscles.



Tension-type headaches are divided into two main categories — episodic and chronic.

Episodic tension headaches

Episodic tension-type headaches can last from 30 minutes to a week. Frequent episodic tension-type headaches occur less than 15 days a month for at least three months. Frequent episodic tension-type headaches may become chronic.

Chronic tension-type headaches

This type of tension-type headache lasts hours and may be continuous. If the headaches occur 15 or more days a month for at least three months, they're considered chronic.


Tension headaches are caused by muscle contractions in the head and neck regions. These types of contractions can occur due to -

  • foods
  • activities
  • stressors

Some people develop tension headaches after staring at a computer screen for a long time or after driving for long periods. Cold temperatures may also trigger a tension headache.

Other trigger factors include:


  • Dull pain
  • Pressure around the forehead
  • Tenderness around the forehead and scalp

The pain is usually mild or moderate, but it can also be intense. In this case, one might confuse tension headache with a migraine. But tension headaches don’t have all the symptoms of migraines, such as nausea and vomiting.


Basic remedies are -

Using medications in conjunction with stress management techniques is effective.

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Temporal lobe seizure

Temporal lobe seizure 

Syringomyelia is the development of a fluid-filled cyst within the spinal cord. Over time, the cyst can grow in size, damaging the spinal cord and causing pain, weakness and stiffness, among other symptoms. If Syringomyelia doesn't cause problems, monitoring the condition might be adequate. But if symptoms aggravate a surgery may be required.
The cause is not very clear that how it develops. Several conditions and diseases can lead to Syringomyelia, including:

  • Chiari malformation, a condition in which brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal
  • Meningitis
  • Spinal cord tumor, which can obstruct  the normal circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Conditions present at birth
  • Spinal cord injury, which can cause symptoms months or years later

Syringomyelia symptoms usually develop slowly over time. In some cases, coughing or straining can trigger symptoms.  Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy)
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Loss of sensitivity to pain and temperature
  • Headaches
  • Stiffness in the back, shoulders, arms and legs
  • Pain in your neck, arms and back
  • Spinal curvature (scoliosis)

CT Scan or MRI
Treatment depends on the severity or progression of the symptoms. Periodic monitoring and  neurological examinations are required. In some cases surgery is the answer. 

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Tay Sachs disease

Tay Sachs disease is an uncommon genetic disorder that passes down from the parentsto the children. In this disease absence of a particular enzyme create trouble in breaking fatty substances. As a result the fatty substances becomes toxic and get accumulates in the brain and the spinal cord which causes death of nerve cells and neurological problems.  

Usually symptoms starts showing up when the baby becomes 3 months old. The symptoms increase and usually flair up within age 4. The symptoms include:  
Low muscle tone and muscle weakness 

  • Sudden falling asleep 
  • Less responsiveness 
  • Lack of attentiveness 
  • Lack of eye movement and inability to make eye contact 
  • Falling behind in meeting motor milestone
  • Slowly losing ability to do tasks the baby used to do before 
  • Cherry red spot in the eye
  • Losing vision  

Tay Sachs disease is a hereditary disease. A baby gets affected by it if both the parents are carrier of this disease.    

To diagnose Tay Sachs disease, doctors prescribe blood tests that measures level of ‘hexosaminidase A’ protein in the blood. Often, the affected child will have no count or much reduced count of this protein. Also, cherry red eye spot, a typical sign is checked to diagnose this disease. 

Tay Sachs disease is a fatal disease. So far no treatment is there and has no cure. Only symptomatic medicines are provided to minimize the conditions.  

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Syringomyelia is the development of a fluid-filled cyst within the spinal cord. Over time, the cyst can grow in size, damaging the spinal cord and causing pain, weakness and stiffness, among other symptoms. If Syringomyelia doesn't cause problems, monitoring the condition might be adequate. But if symptoms aggravate a surgery may be required.
The cause is not very clear that how it develops. Several conditions and diseases can lead to Syringomyelia, including:

  • Chiari malformation, a condition in which brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal
  • Meningitis
  • Spinal cord tumor, which can obstruct  the normal circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Conditions present at birth
  • Spinal cord injury, which can cause symptoms months or years later

Syringomyelia symptoms usually develop slowly over time. In some cases, coughing or straining can trigger symptoms.  Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy)
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Loss of sensitivity to pain and temperature
  • Headaches
  • Stiffness in the back, shoulders, arms and legs
  • Pain in your neck, arms and back
  • Spinal curvature (scoliosis)

CT Scan or MRI
Treatment depends on the severity or progression of the symptoms. Periodic monitoring and  neurological examinations are required. In some cases surgery is the answer. 

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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces within the spine, which can put pressure on the nerves that passes through the spine. Spinal stenosis develops usually in the lower back and the neck. The condition develops due to age-related wear and tear. Symptoms include pain, numbness, muscle weakness and impaired bladder or bowel control. Some people with may not have symptom. Treatment includes medication, physiotherapy and possibly surgery.
Spinal stenosis has many causes. Age related wear and tear and injuries are risk factors. The causes of Spinal stenosis include – 

  • Bone overgrowth or Arthritic spur
  • Bulging disk or herniated disk
  • Thockened ligaments
  • Spinal fractures or injuries
  • Spinal cord cyst / tumor
  • Congenital Spinal stenosis

Symptoms of lower back (lumbar) spinal stenosis include:

  • Pain in the lower back. Pain can come and go.
  • Sciatica. This is pain that begins in the buttocks and extends down the leg and may continue up to foot.
  • A heavy feeling in the legs, which may lead to cramping in one or both legs.
  • Numbness or tingling in the buttocks, leg or foot.
  • Weakness in the leg or foot (as the stenosis worsens).
  • Pain that worsens when standing for long periods of time or walking 
  • Pain that lessens when leaning, bending slightly forward, walking uphill or sitting.
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).

Symptoms of neck (cervical) spinal stenosis include:

  • Pain in the Neck 
  • Numbness or tingling in the arm, hand, leg or foot. 
  • Weakness or clumsiness in the arm, hand, leg or foot.
  • Loss of balance.
  • Loss of functional efficiency in hands, like writing or buttoning shirts.
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).

Apart from checking medical history and physical examination the doctor may advise -Imaging tests like X ray, MRI, CT Scan or CT Myelogram.

Treatment for Spinal stenosis include medication, physical therapy, steroid injections, decompression procedure and surgery.


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Spinal headaches

Spinal headache
Spinal headaches occurwhen spinal fluid leak through a punctured hole in the dura mater or the tough membrane that surrounds spinal cord. This leakage lowers downin the pressure exerted by the spinal fluid on the spinal cord and the brain which causesthis type of headache.
The symptoms of Spinal Head ache are as follows: 

  • Intense and throbbing headache 
  • The pain starts in the front portion or back side of the head
  • The pain usually increases in sitting or standing positions
  • The pain worsens while coughing, sneezing or straining
  • Neck pain with additional stiffness in the neck
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sensitivity towards bright light

Most of the times, a Spinal Head ache is caused by spinal tapping or lumber puncture. It is a procedure conducted by the medical professionals to diagnose a disease. Usually it occurs within 5 days after a spinal tap. 
Doctors diagnose it by considering the patient’s medical history and symptoms. But if this type of head ache is developed without a history of lumber puncture imaging tests such as MRI is prescribed to find out the source of this ailment.  
Bed rest, drinking ample quantity of fluids, consuming caffeine along with oral pain relievers are the common treatments prescribed for Spinal Headache.
But if the head ache does not improve within 24 hours, the doctor is likely to suggest an epidural blood patch. This process refers to injecting a small quantity of the patient’s blood into the punctured hole. The injected blood forms a clot and seal the hole. This way the normal pressure is restored in the spinal fluid and cured the headache. 

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Spinal cord tumor

Spinal cord tumor 

A spinal tumor is a growth that develops inside  the  spinal canal or within the bones of the spine. A spinal cord tumor which  begins within the spinal cord or in the covering of the spinal cord (dura) is also called  Intradural tumor. A tumor that affects the bones of the spine (vertebrae) is called a vertebral tumor.
Spinal tumors can lead to pain, neurological problems and sometimes paralysis. A spinal tumor can be life-threatening and may cause permanent disability.
Treatment for a spinal tumor may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or other medications.
Spinal cord tumors can cause different signs and symptoms. The symptoms may include:

  • Pain at the site of the tumor 
  • Back pain is a common early symptom of spinal tumor and it radiates to other parts of the body
  • Feeling less sensitive to pain, heat, and cold
  • Loss of bowel or bladder function
  • Difficulty walking
  • Back pain that worsens at night
  • Loss of sensation or muscle weakness, especially in the arms or legs

It's not clear why most spinal tumors develop. Experts suspect that defective genes may play a role.

  • MRI of the Spinal cord
  • CT Scan
  • Biopsy

The treatment options include surgery, radiation and Chemotherapy.

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Shaken baby syndrome

Shaken Baby Syndrome is an extremely serious brain injury that develops from forcefully shaking an infant by parents or caregivers out of frustration or anger.  It may cause permanent brain damage or death also.


Shaken Baby Syndrome includes the following symptoms:

  • Irritability
  • Drowsiness
  • Seizures
  • Poor eating
  • Vomiting
  • Breathing difficulty  
  • Developing paralysis
  • Coma


Tiny babies have weak neck muscles which cannot support their head unless they grow up a little. At this stage shaking them hard makes their brain move back and forth inside their head that results into a very serious permanent brain injury. It often becomes fatal or develops blindness, hearing loss, seizures, cerebral palsy and learning disability.


Often it becomes difficult to diagnosis if somebody shook the baby or not as the babies cannot speak.

Once the doctors suspects a Shaken Baby Syndrome, they might order imaging tests like X-ray, CT scan or MRI are the usual tests or eye tests to check evidences for retinal bleeding. 


Shaken Baby Syndrome needs immediate attention before it becomes too late. The adults’ confession and cooperation is extremely important to start the treatment. The process of treatment depends on the severity of the conditions. If necessary immediate breathing support and a surgery might be ordered to stop bleeding in the brain.    


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Serotonin syndrome

Serotonin syndrome 

Serotonin Syndrome is a drug reaction that appears due to taking some medications that increases serotonin level in the body.  It is a serious health condition. 
Serotonin Syndrome usually has the following symptoms:

  • Restlessness              
  • Rapid heartbeat         
  • Headache 
  • Muscle stiffness        
  • Shivering 
  • Confusion                    
  • Dilated pupils
  • Heavy sweating        
  • High blood pressure
  • Confusion                
  • Insomnia
  • Nausea  
  • Diarrhea                   
  • Vomiting

In severe Serotonin Syndrome, symptoms may also include: 

High fever, unconsciousness, seizure, tremor, kidney failure and irregular heartbeat.  

Usually a combination of medications that increases Serotonin level cause Serotonin Syndrome. But sometimes a few people may get it by taking a single drug that may raise the serotonin level.  
Antidepressant pills, migraine medications, some antibiotics, pain killers, cough and cold medicines and medicines used for nausea and vomiting may cause this condition. Herbal supplements, HIV medications and Illegal drugs and dietary supplements are also responsible in building up Serotonin in human system.  
Doctors diagnose Serotonin Syndrome through physical exam and checking up of medical history that reveals use of medicines and supplements. To confirm this disease medical professionals my order other lab tests that rule out the possibility of tetanus, encephalitis, sepsis and heatstroke.      
To treat Serotonin Syndrome, stopping the medicines that is increasing Serotonin is critical. The patient needs to be hospitalized to keep a close watch to attend the symptoms. Sometimes patients may need to get extra fluid through IV to flush the system. In severe condition medicines that stops natural production of serotonin in the human body are used for quick recovery.    

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Sacroilitis causes inflammation in one or both the Sacroiliac joints that connects lower portion of spine and pelvis. The pain occurs in the lower back region, buttocks and spread towards the legs. Standing for a long time or climbing stairs can aggravate the pain.


Low back pain is the primary symptom of this disease.


The common causes that develop Sacroilitis include:

  • Traumatic Injury
  • Arthritis
  • Pregnancy


Initially a doctor physically checks a patient suffering from pain in the lower back and buttocks. If Sacroiliitis is suspected, the doctor may prescribe the following tests:

  • X-ray
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Anesthetic Injection


Treatment procedure of Sacroiliitis largely depends on the cause of developing this disease and its condition. Managing pain and treatment may include: 

  • Medication
  • Physical therapy
  • Surgery and other procedures


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Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a disease caused by a shingles outbreak that affects a facial nerve close to one of the ears. It develops painful shingles rash and sometimes comes with a facial paralysis. It can be responsible for hearing loss also in the affected ear.
The symptoms of Ramsay Hunt syndrome are as follows: 

  • Painful red rashesnear one ear
  • Facial paralysis on the same side of the affected ear
  • Ear pain
  • Hearing loss
  • Ringing sound in the ears 
  • Difficulty in closing one eye
  • Spinning or moving sensation
  • Loss of taste
  • Dry eyes and mouth

Ramsay Hunt syndrome is developed by the virus that causes chickenpox. Sometimes chicken pox virus remains alive in the nerves even after chickenpox clears up. In such conditions, it may reactivate and affect the facial nerves.
Doctors often diagnose Ramsay Hunt syndrome by checking medical history of the patient. A physical exam is also conducted. The typical signs and symptoms help identifying this disease.  To confirm the diagnosis, sample fluid taken from the rash blisters is testedin the lab. 
Early detection and promptly starting the treatment procedure decreases the pain and risk factor of hearing loss. Medications like antiviral drugs, Corticosteroids and Anti-anxiety medications are used to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome. 

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Pseudotumor cerebri

Pseudotumor cerebri 

Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition that increases the pressure inside the patient’s skull without any reason. This disorder is also known as Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension or IIH which has symptoms that appear to be a Brain Tumour.  Usually, overweight women at child bearing age get affected by this disease.  
Pseudotumor cerebri causes the following symptoms: 

  • Headache
  • Blurred Vision or double vision
  • Nausea and Vomiting 
  • Dizziness
  • Swelling of optic nerves 
  • Ringing sound in the ears
  • Sudden flashes of light 

Pseudotumor cerebri is caused by over accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and the spinal cord. Human body continuously produces this fluid to protect the brain and the spinal cord from injuries. The cerebrospinal fluid is also naturally gets absorbed by the system that maintains a perfect balance. But if more fluid is generated than it is required or less fluid is reabsorbed in the body, the quantity of cerebrospinal fluid becomes high and increases the pressure on brain. 
To diagnose Pseudotumor cerebri a medical professional initially ask the patient about the medical history and check the optic nerves with ophthalmoscope. The other tests may include: 

  • Spinal Tap or Lumber Puncture
  • CT or Computed Tomography 
  • MRI 

Getting treatment without delay is important in Pseudotumor cerebri. This helps save the vision. Taking quick measure in losing body weight and controlling salt intake improves the condition. Steroids and medicines used to treat glaucoma, migraine and fluid controlling are used to treat this disease. If the condition is severe surgery is also prescribed to reduce the pressure around the brain.       

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Primary progressive aphasia

Primary progressive aphasia 

Primary Progressive Aphasia is a rare nervous system syndrome that affects one’s ability to communicate. People affected by this condition can have trouble expressing their thoughts and understanding or finding words.
Symptoms begin gradually, often before the age 65 and it worsens over time. People with primary progressive aphasia can lose the ability to speak and write. This condition progresses slowly.
Primary progressive aphasia is a type of dementia, a cluster of related disorders that results from the degeneration of the frontal or temporal lobes of the brain, which include brain tissue involved in speech and language.
Primary progressive aphasia symptoms vary, depending on which portion of the brain's language areas are involved. The condition has three types, which cause different symptoms. But basically it affects the language ability initially the following:

  • Difficulty comprehending spoken or written language
  • Frequently pausing in speech 
  • Difficulty repeating phrases or sentences
  • Poor grammar in written and spoken form
  • It may be accompanied by speaking problems 

Primary progressive aphasia is caused by shrinking of certain sections (lobes) of the brain responsible for speech and language. In this case, the frontal, temporal or parietal lobes, primarily on the left side of the brain, are affected.
People with primary progressive aphasia eventually lose the ability to speak and write, and to understand written and spoken language. As the disease progresses, other mental skills, such as memory, can become impaired. Some people develop other neurological symptoms such as problems with movement. With these complications, the affected person eventually will need help with day-to-day care.
Worsening communication difficulty without significant changes in thinking and behavior for a year or two is a hallmark of primary progressive aphasia. The diagnostic tests include:
Neurological tests
Doctors might conduct a neurological examination, a speech-language evaluation and a neuropsychological evaluation. 
Blood tests
Blood tests to check  infections or other medical conditions. Genetic tests can be  advised to determine genetic mutations associated with this disease.

Brain Scan
Like MRI Scan, SPECT Scan or PET Scan
Primary progressive aphasia can't be cured, and there are no medications to treat it. However, some therapies might help improve or maintain the patient’s ability to communicate and manage the condition. Options like Speech & Language Therapy can help control the symptoms and may slow the progression of the disease. 

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Pinched nerve

Pinched Nerve

Pinched Nerve is an injury of a nerve or a group of nerves. This condition happens when a nerve gets compressed or irritated. It usually occurs in the neck, lower back or legs.  A pinched sensory nerve in the neck may cause pain in the spine and spread to the arms and shoulder. Compression of nerves may affect wrist, elbow and thigh also.  


Symptoms of pinched nerve are as follows:

Tingling feeling
Discomfort and pain
Sharp and electrical pain
Increased pain while doing some activities
Increased pain while sneezing or copughing

A primary cause that develops pinched nerve is a herniated disk. The slipped out discs often press on the sensory nerves or the nerve roots and creates the symptoms.


Doctors initially diagnose this condition by physically checking the patient.   The reflexes and the ability to sense thingsand the functions of the nerves are primarily judged in the examinations. Other tests may include:

Imaging tests, like X-ray, CT scan, or MRI.

Nerve conduction tests

Electromyography (EMG).


Treatment of pinched nerve includes the following steps:

Medicinesthat include non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs, along with narcotic medicines, and muscle relaxants
Physical therapy or a home exercise program under medical supervision. 
Wearing a soft collar around the neck in case of pinched nerve in the neck.
Injections of steroid medicine in the affected area.
A surgery commonly known as discectomy.

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Phenylketonuria PKU

Phenylketonuria commonly called PKU, is a type of genetic disorder. This disease creates a condition that causes phenylalanine an amino acidbuild up in the system. The hereditary defect in PKU changes phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene thatgenerates the particular enzyme required to break down phenylalanine. Ideally, new-borns should be screened for Phenylketonuria to avoid any future risk. 
Untreated PKU causes brain damage, intellectual disability and other behavioural symptoms including seizures.   

Symptoms of PKU may varyfrommild to severeclassic PKU. A baby born with classic PKU initially may not show symptoms for the first few months but if it is not diagnosed and treated on time the infant will start showing up following symptoms: 

  • Seizures
  • Tremors, trembling or shaking
  • Stunted growth
  • Hyperactivity
  • Eczema and other skin conditions 
  • A musty odorin their breath, skin, or urine
  • Untreated PKU can also cause:
  • Permanent brain damage and intellectual disabilities 
  • Behavioural problems 

PKU is an inherited disease caused by genetic defect in the PAH gene. Intake of high-protein foods aggravates the symptoms leading to a dangerous level of phenylalanine build up. 
A child gets this condition when both the parents carry the defective version of the PAH gene. If one parent carries this defective gene the child will be the carrier of this gene without any symptom.
To diagnose PKU, doctors prescribe blood test that analyses presence of PAH gene mutation. Usually, it is done within six weeks of birth. 

Treatment of PKU primarily deals with planning a special diet that avoids high protein food. A perfect PKU diet keeps the symptoms and complications under control. Doctors may also prescribe some special protein supplementary formula and medications to improve the conditions. 

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Phantom pain

Phantom Pain 
Phantom Pain is a flashing pain that creates a feeling it is coming from a limb which is no longer there. The pain with burning and twisting feeling originates from the spinal cord and brain.  

  • Usually it develops after a week of amputation.  Though if often begins later also.
  • Pain may come and go or it can be a continuous pain.
  • Burning, cramping or crushing or throbbing feeling. 
  • Feeling of pins and needles. 
  • Feeling of the pain is coming from a limb that is already no longer there. 

Phantom Pain occurs after a limb is amputated. The nerves which were directly connected to the limb which is no longer exist creates the feeling of pain. 
There is no exact diagnosis process for this pain. Doctors usually identify it after judging patient’s symptoms and medical history.  
Here are the different treatment processes for Phantom Pain. 

  • Medicines - Various types of medications like pain reliever, narcotics, anti-convulsion and anti-depressant medications are used.   
  • Medical Therapy - this includes Mirror box, rTMS, Acupuncture, Spinal cord stimulation. 
  • Surgery - Brain stimulation is created in this way. Though it is rare.  

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brain tumors

Brain Tumour
A mass of abnormal cells forming a lump in the brain is called Brain Tumour. 
Brain tumour can be cancerous as well as non-cancerous.  
The symptoms of a brain tumour may vary from person to person depending on the brain tumour's size, rate of growth and the location where it exists. 
But generalized signs may include the following:

  • Changing pattern of headaches
  • Frequent headaches that gradually becomes more severe
  • Nausea and vomiting and fatigue
  • Blurred or double vision and loss of peripheral vision
  • Developing loss of sensation in a body part like an arm or a leg
  • Facing problem with balance
  • Difficulties with hearing and speech
  • Confusion and difficulty in making decisions
  • Developing inability in following commands
  • Personality and behaviour changes
  • Seizures 

Abnormal changes in the DNA of the brain cells cause a tumour in the brain. This is called primary brain tumour. Sometimes cancer spreads to the brain from other parts of the body this is called secondary type of brain tumour. This is more common in adults. 
In case a Brain Tumour is suspected the doctors are likely to prescribe the following tests:

  • Neurological Examinations
  • Imaging Tests like MRI, CT and PET
  • Biopsy

Treatment of Brain Tumour may be of different types depending on various factors like the size of the tumour, the location and also the general health conditions of the patient. Here are the different methods commonly used: 

  • Surgery    
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy    
  • Targeted Drug Therapy 
  • Radiosurgery    

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Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system

Paraneoplastic syndromes

ParaneoplasticSyndromes are a group of rare type of disorders that commonly develop in nervous system of people suffering from cancer. However, ParaneoplasticSyndromes can occur in other organs of human systems that include hormones, skin, blood and joints.


Symptoms of Paraneoplastic Syndromes may be of different types depending on the organ which is affected. The most common syndromes' of Paraneoplastic Syndromes include fever:

  • Loss of appetite and loss of and weight
  • Night sweats.
  • High blood pressure
  • Weakness and drowsiness
  • Double vision
  • Reduced sensation and reflexes with coordination problems
  • Speech difficulty
  • Skin syndromes, flushing, or itching
  • Benign skin growths


The cause of ParaneoplasticSyndromes is closely related with lung, breast, lymphatic and ovarian cancers.  Risk factors of developing this disease also include age, and a family history of cancers. Most of the times people are likely to suffer fromParaneoplastic Syndromes are if they suffer from following types of cancers:

Gastric (stomach)
Lung, especially small cell lung cancer
Renal (kidney)

Doctors initially, diagnoses Paraneoplastic Syndromes by physicallychecking a patient and asking the medical history. However, to confirm the disease they willask the patient to conduct some tasks to analyse if there is any health issue related to nervous system, strength, coordination and memory.  Doctor may also order blood tests, MRI and CT scan to find out the tumor that is causing the issues.


Treatment of Paraneoplastic Syndromes include:

Corticosteroids: Medications to reduce inflammation
Immunosuppression: Autoimmune drugs
Intravenous immunoglobulin:Injecting healthy antibodies to destroythe notorious antibodies creating the syndrome
Plasmapheresis:Decreasing the numbers of affected antibodies by using a procedure to remove plasma from the blood
Physical and speech therapy:Improving speech and movement with the help of muscle exercises

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Neurofibromatoses refer to a condition caused by genetic disorders. In this disease tumors are formed in the nervous system that includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosesare classified into three types: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and Schwannomatosis.
Usually,type 1 occurs in childhood, but the other two types mostly appear in early adulthood.
Type 1 is causes bone deformities, high blood pressure or learning disabilities. Type 2 often causes hearing loss, and vision loss or difficulty with maintaining balance. Type 3 remains responsible for chronic pain all over the body.
Some patients with less severity may not need treatment exceptclose observation. But others with more acute symptoms may require treatment that include chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.
The signs and symptoms of Neurofibromatosis, vary from one type to another. Here are different types of symptoms:
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1):
Signs of this condition are often noticed at the time of birth or shortly after the birth and mostly always within age 10. Signs can be in mild or moderate formone patient to another that include:

  • Flat, light brown spots on the skin (cafe au lait spots). New spots stop appearing after childhood. 
  • Freckling in the areas like armpits or groin. 
  • Tiny bumps on the iris of the eye (Lisch nodules). 
  • Soft, and tiny bumps on or under the skin (neurofibromas). 
  • Bone deformities. 
  • Tumor on the optic nerve (optic glioma) that usually appears by age 3. 
  • Learning disabilities that includes impaired thinking skills with additional issues like ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and delay in speech.
  • Larger than average head size. 
  • Short stature. 

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) 
This type is not as common as NF1. Signs of NF2 are:

  • Development of benign, and slow-growing tumors in the ears that cause hearing loss. 
  • Development of tumors known as vestibular schwannomasthat grow on the nerve responsible forcarriying sound and balance information from the inner part of ear to the brain.
  • Patients may suffer from gradual hearing loss, ringing in the ears, developing poor balance and headaches
  • Development ofschwannomas in the cranial, spinal, visual and peripheral nerves including other benign tumors with symptoms like weakness and numbness in the arms or legs, pain vision problems seizures and headache

This is a very rare type of Neurofibromatoses that occurs after age 20. People suffering from this type experiences the following symptoms:
Chronic pain, numbness and weakness in different parts of the body with loss of muscle control
Neurofibromatosis is a hereditary disease caused by genetic defects or spontaneously occur during conception stage. 
Doctors diagnose Neurofibromatosis by physically examining the patient and reviewinghis or her personal and family medical history. Additionally, to diagnose NF1, NF2 or Schwannomatosismedical professionals may suggest the following tests: 

  • Eye exam.
  • Hearing and balance exams. 
  • Imaging tests. X-rays, CT scans or MRIs 
  • Genetic tests. 

There is no cure for neurofibromatosis. But it can be managed by treating different symptoms. Early detection and starting the treatment may improve the condition.Here are the process that can keep this condition under control:

  • Monitoring
  • Medication
  • Surgery and other procedures
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery. 
  • Auditory brainstem implants and cochlear implants. 
  • Cancer treatment
  • Pain medications
  • Managing pain 

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Narcolepsy is a chronic disease that affects the nervous system and creates sleeping disorder. In this disease the patients experience sudden sleep attacks during the day time.  It causes abnormal sleep that can affect a person’s daily life activities. The unnatural and uncontrollable urge to fall asleep anywhere at any time of the day may lead to poor quality of life which includes higher chances of accidents and injuries.  Many times people suffering from Narcolepsy also have temporary loss of muscle control. 
Usually Narcolepsy is detected between the age group of 10 to 25. It is not a very common disease and often misdiagnosed.   

  • Significant daytime drowsiness. Excessive daytime sleepiness or EDS is the main symptom of narcolepsy. This interferes with the capacity to work properly during daytime.
  • Cataplexy. Thisrefers to a sudden and temporary loss of muscle control. 
  • REM sleep. This is a sleep stage when the patients have vivid dreams with additional condition of no control over muscle tone. It usually occurs within 15 minutes after the patient falls asleep. 
  • Sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis appears while falling asleep, during sleep or at the time of waking up. This is a condition when the patient becomes unable to move or speak. But this situation does not last more than a few seconds or minutes.
  • Hallucinations. People with narcolepsy often experiences hallucinations at the time of falling asleep or waking up.
  • Fragmented sleep at night. Narcolepsy patients feels sleepy during the day but usually   faces difficulty in falling asleep at night.
  • Automatic behaviors. People with this sleeping order fall asleep during a work and continue doing the same for a few seconds or minutes even in unconscious stage. 

A decreased level of a brain protein called hypocretin is responsible for this sleep disorder. Sometimes family history, stress and exposure to toxins or other infections are also identified as the cause Narcolepsy.
To confirm narcolepsy, doctors usually ask the patient about the symptoms and medical history. At the same time various sleep evaluation tests like Polysomnogram (PSG), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), ActiGraph or Maltiple Sleep Latency (MSLTL) are prescribed. 
Various types of medications are used to treat this disease. Doctors prescribe different classes of medications depending on the patient’s health condition. 

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Naegleria infection

Naegleria is a rare type of brain infection. This is a fatal disease which caused by a type of brain eating amoeba.

Symptoms of Naegleria include headache, nausea and vomiting and fever in the initial stage of the disease. In more advance stage, symptoms like stiff neck, confusion, losing balance and attention towards surroundings, hallucinations and seizures occurs. 

Naegleria occurs if Naegleria fowleri, a special type of free-living amoeba enters a human body usually through nose and travel to the brain. This amoeba is found in warm freshwater riversor lakes or springs. Most of the times swimmers or divers get it while practicing water sports.  

Naegleria infection is diagnosed through a clinical test of Cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to this doctors may also order imaging tests like CT scan or MRI.

A few people survive Naegleria as they are timely diagnosed. But most of the times it becomes fatal.   Several antibiotics and anti-fungal drugs are used to control this disease.  

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis 

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In this disease one’s immune system destroys the protective covering of nerves. This damage disrupts communication between the brain and the body.
Multiple sclerosis causes many different symptoms, including vision loss, pain, fatigue and impaired coordination. The symptoms, severity and duration can vary from person to person. Physiotherapy and medication can help slow disease progression.

There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms. Some symptoms include :

  • Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs 
  • Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain neck movements
  • Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
  • Slurred speech
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Tingling or pain in different body parts
  • Problems with sexual, bowel and bladder function
  • Vision problems like double vision, blurry vision or total loss of vision


  • Muscle stiffness or spasms
  • Paralysis, typically in the legs
  • Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or mood swings
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy

Course of the Disease
Most of the MS patients have relapsing and remitting phases. They pass through periods of new symptoms or relapses that develop over days or weeks and usually improve partially or completely. These relapses are followed by periods of  remission that can continue for months or even years.
At least 50% of those with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop a steady progression of symptoms, with or without periods of remission, within 10 to 20 years from disease onset. This is known as secondary-progressive MS.
Some people with MS experience a gradual onset and steady progression of signs and symptoms without any relapses. It is known as primary-progressive MS.
The reason for developing MS is not yet clear. A combination of genetics and environmental factors may be responsible.
Risk Factors

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Family history
  • Certain infections
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Certain autoimmune diseases


  • Blood tests
  • MRI
  • Spinal Tap (Lumbre Puncture)

Multiple sclerosis cannot be cured. Treatment basically focuses on rapid recovery from attacks, slowing the progression of the disease and controlling MS symptoms. In some cases treatment includes Cortico steroids and Plasma exchange (Plasma Pheresis). Physical therapy,  stress relief, rest and relaxation, healthy diet help in living a better quality of life for an MS patient. 

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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease 

Moyamoya Disease is a rare blood vessel disease that blocks or narrows the carotid artery in the skull and decrease blood flow to the brain. As a result, tiny blood vessels develops at the base of the brain in a natural attempt to supply blood to the brain. This disease may appear to anyone irrespective of age but usually symptoms start showing up within 5 to 10 years among children and 30 to 50 among adults.  
Symptoms of Moyamoya Disease vary from children to adults. Children usually get stroke or recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA). The symptoms faced by adults usually include: 

  • Headache
  • Seizures
  • Numbness or partial paralysis on the face, arm, or leg on a particular side
  • Involuntary movements of limbs
  • Visual disturbances
  • Difficulty in speaking and understanding
  • Cognitive or developmental delay

The cause of Moyamoya Disease is not yet identified. But it is seen in Asian countries like China, Korea and Japan. It may have some common genetic factor that help developing this condition.  Moyamoya Disease also have relation with other diseases like Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, hyperthyroidism and type 1 neurofibromatosis. 
Doctors diagnose Moyamoya Disease by physically checking the patient and asking questions about family and medical history. But to confirm this condition usually they take help of the following tests: 

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) scan
  • Cerebral Angiogram
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
  • Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

Treatment of Moyamoya Disease include:

  • Medications consisting blood-thinners, anti-seizure medicines and calcium blockers. 
  • Surgery that may include either ‘Direct Revascularization Procedures’ or ‘Indirect Revascularization

Therapy mostly psychiatric with additional support of physical and occupational therapies. 

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Morton s neuroma

Morton's neuroma
Morton's neuroma, a painful diseasethat occurs by thickening of tissues around a nerve. It usually affects the ball of the foot. Most of the times it is developed in the location between the third and fourth toes. In this condition the patient feels as if he is standing on a pebble in a shoe. 
The typical signs of Morton's neuroma are as follows: 

  • The patient has a feeling like standing on a pebble in the shoe
  • A burning pain in the ball of the foot
  • The pain radiates into the toes
  • Tingling or numbness in the toes

Morton's neuroma usually occurs in response to a pressure or injury to a nerve that leads to ther toes.
Other factors that may increase the risk of getting Morton's neuroma include the following:  
High heels or ill- fitting shoes
Certain sports activities like jogging or running, snow skiing and rock climbing.
Foot deformitieslike bunions or hammertoes, and high arches. 
Doctors initially check the symptoms and physically examine the patient. But to determine Morton's neuroma, a patient is usually ordered imaging tests like X-rays,   Ultrasound or MRI tests. 
Treatment of Morton's neuroma depends on the severity of the disease. Usually therapeutic treatment is suggested in initial stage. If it does not work surgical and other procedures are suggested. Injections, Decompression Surgery and Removal of nerve are the common processes. 

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Migraine with aura

Migraine with aura

Migraine with aura or classic migraine is a recurring type acute headache. It is caused due to a sensory disturbance termed aura. Visual disturbances like flashes of light and blind spots or other sensory disturbances like prickling feeling in hands or face are the common disturbances experienced by the patient that trigger Migraine with aura. Sometimes verbal of motor disturbances are also reported.


Here are the common signs which occurs before 24 to 48 hours such a pain starts:

Feeling of extreme tiredness
Recurring yawning
Craving   for certain foods
Feeling irritated on simple matters
Feeling of stiffness in the neck and muscles 
Seeing flashing lights or zigzag lines
Hearing sounds and getting smells which are not real.
Tingling feeling on hands and face.
Blind spots in one or both the eyes. 
Dizziness and vertigo.
Feeling of hot flashes or chill.
Vomiting and stomach problem.


The causes that creates this disease are not clearly identified.  But it is assumed several existing chemicals in the brain play a role.

People suffering from common Migraine or Migraine with aura usually have a family history that reveals hereditary factor is largely responsible for this disease.


Medications that are used in treatment of common migraine are also used for migraine with aura. Self- care and preventive measures that are followed to treat a migraine without aura is also same in taking care of patients suffering with Migraine with aura.

Abortive and preventive, two types of medications are used in treatment of Migraine. 

Abortive medications helps stopping or decreasing the pain when the pain still remains mild during the initial stage. 

But doctors prescribe preventive (prophylactic) medications in severe headaches with an evidence of occurring more than four times within a month that are significantly interfering with the normal activities. These medicines are used to control the intensity and severity of the disease.

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Meralgia paresthetica

Meralgia paresthetica is a health condition that occurs due to compression of the particular nerve responsible for providing sensation to the upper portion of leg in human body. It develops burning pain, tingling feeling and numbness in the outer part of thigh.

Here are the common symptoms of Meralgia paresthetica:

  • Tingling feeling
  • Burning pain
  • Numbness and decreased sensation   
  • Intensified pain to even a light touch
  • Aggravated pain with standing or walking
  • Occurs in one side of the body

The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve passes through abdomen to the groin and to the upper leg and supplies feeling of sensation to the upper leg. If it gets pinched or trapped under inguinal ligament this disease develops. Most of the times Meralgia paresthetica occurs as a result of the following conditions:

  • Wearing tight clothing that create pressure on the groin 
  • Pregnancy 
  • Obesity 
  • Wearing heavy tool belt 
  • Increased abdominal pressure due to abdominal fluid accumulation
  • Injury or surgery that develop scar tissue near inguinal ligament
  • Diabetes

Usually, doctors diagnose Meralgia parestheticawith the help of physical examination medical history. The confirmatory tests of this disease include: 

  • Imaging studies    
  • Nerve conduction study
  • Electromyography    
  • Nerve Blockade  

To treat Meralgia paresthetica, three types of processes are followed: 
Conservative measure: It recommends losing weight, wearing loose fitting clothing and taking common pain relievers. 
Medication: If conservative measure doesn’t improve the condition, injection, anti-depressant medicines and anti-seizure medicines are prescribed. 
Surgery: In rare situations surgery is suggested to decompress the pinched nerve.  

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Meningitis occurs due to a viral infection but can be due to bacterial or fungal infection also.  Meningitis is an inflammation of the fluid and membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms mainly include headache, fever and stiff neck. Depending on the cause, Meningitis may improve on its own or it can bring about life risk, requiring immediate antibiotic treatment. Vaccines can prevent some forms of Meningitis.
Early meningitis symptoms may resemble that of the flu (influenza). Symptoms usually develop over several hours or over a few days.

  • Stiff neck
  • High temperature
  • Severe headache  along with nausea/Vomiting
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Seizures
  • Sleepiness or difficulty waking
  • Sensitivity to light
  • No appetite or thirst
  • Skin rash (sometimes, such as in meningococcal meningitis)

Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis. There are bacterial infections and  rarely fungal and parasitic infections also. Bacterial infections can be life-threatening, so identifying the cause is important.

Bacterial meningitis
Bacteria that enters the bloodstream and travel to the brain and spinal cord lead to acute bacterial meningitis. But it can also occur when bacteria directly invades the meninges. 
Viral meningitis
Viral meningitis is usually mild and often improves on its own. 
Chronic meningitis
Chronic meningitis is caused by slow-growing organisms (such as fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that attack the membranes and fluid surrounding the brain. Chronic meningitis develops over two weeks or more. 
Fungal meningitis
Fungal meningitis is  not so common. Its symptoms may resemble acute bacterial meningitis. It's often contracted by breathing in fungal spores that may be found in soil, decaying wood and bird droppings. Fungal meningitis isn't contagious. It usually affects people with immune deficiencies. It's life-threatening if not treated with an antifungal medication. 
Parasitic meningitis
Parasitic meningitis is quite rare and can also be caused by a tapeworm infection in the brain (cysticercosis) or cerebral malaria. The main parasites that cause meningitis actually infect the animals. Humans get affected by eating foods contaminated with these parasites. 

Other meningitis causes
Meningitis can also result from non infectious reasons, such as chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer and inflammatory diseases such as Sarcoidosis.
Risk factors

  • Children and young population
  • Living in a community setting like students’ hostel dormitories, personnel on military bases, and children in boarding schools are at greater risk of getting meningococcal meningitis. This is probably because the bacterium is spread through the respiratory route.
  • Low immunity persons whose immune system is more susceptible to meningitis. 

Meningitis complications can be detrimental. Unless the treatment begins immediately there are chances of permanent neurological damage.  These include -

  • Loss of hearing
  • Memory loss
  • Learning disabilities
  • Brain damage
  • Gait problems
  • Seizures
  • Renal failure
  • Shock

With prompt treatment, even people with severe meningitis can recover fully.

  • Blood cultures
  • Imaging  like X ray, CT scan or MRI
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture).

The treatment depends on the type of meningitis. 
Acute bacterial meningitis must be treated immediately with intravenous antibiotics and sometimes corticosteroids. This helps to ensure recovery and lowers the risk of complications, such as brain swelling and seizures.
Antibiotics can't cure viral meningitis. In most of the cases it gets better on its own in a few weeks. Treatment of mild cases usually includes:

  • Bed rest
  • Plenty of fluids
  • Pain relievers to help reduce body aches and fever

Sometimes corticosteroids are prescribed to reduce swelling in the brain, and an anticonvulsant medication to control seizures. 
Other types 
Treatment for chronic meningitis is based on the underlying cause. Antifungal medications treat fungal meningitis, and a combination of specific antibiotics can treat Tuberculous meningitis. 
Non infectious meningitis due to allergic reaction or autoimmune disease may be treated with corticosteroids. In some cases, no treatment may be required because the condition can resolve on its own. Cancer-related meningitis requires therapy for the specific cancer.
Fungal Meningitis
Though very rare, fungal meningitis usually affects people with other underlying medical conditions.  Anti fungal medications are prescribed along with medications to control pain and fever.
Common bacteria or viruses that can cause meningitis can spread through coughing, sneezing, kissing, or sharing eating utensils, a toothbrush or a cigarette. So these reasons need to be avoided.
The following  steps can help prevent it -

  • Careful hand-washing helps prevent the spread of germs. 
  • Practicing good hygiene by not  sharing drinks, foods, straws, eating utensils, lip stick/ lip balms or toothbrushes with anyone else
  • Efforts to maintain a strong immune system by getting enough rest, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. 
  • Cover one’s mouth or nose at the time of coughing or sneezing, 

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Meningioma is a tumor that develops on membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord just inside the skull. Actually the tumor forms on the three layers of membranes that are called Meninges. These tumors don’t grow quickly and almost the majority are benign (not cancerous). Most of the Meningiomas occur in the brain.
The causes of Meningioma is uncertain. Radiation therapy, female hormones and genetics may play a role. Symptoms depending on the size of the tumour include headaches, vision change,  hearing loss and seizures. A small, slow-growing Meningioma that isn't causing any symptom may not require treatment. Otherwise, treatment involves surgery or radiation.

Signs and symptoms of a Meningioma develop gradually. It depends on the location of the tumor.  The symptoms may include:

  • Blurred or Double vision 
  • Headaches – especially severe in the morning
  • Loss of hearing or ringing sound in the ears
  • Loss of memory 
  • Loss of smell
  • Seizures
  • Weakness in arms or legs
  • Speaking difficulty 

The cause of developing Meningioma is still not clear. Doctors know that something alters some cells in one’s Meninges that make them proliferate and lead to a Meningioma tumor.
Possible factors can be one’s genes, hormones and rarely prior exposure to radiation or other factors. 

  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Loss of memory
  • Personality changes
  • Seizures
  • Weakness
  • Sensory changes
  • Language difficulty

 It is difficult to diagnose because the tumor is often slow growing. Symptoms of a Meningioma may also be subtle and mistaken for other health conditions like normal signs of aging. Usual investigation procedures are

  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • In some cases tumor biopsy may be needed.

 The treatment for Meningioma depends on many factors, including:

  • The size and location of the meningioma
  • The rate of growth or aggressiveness of the tumor
  • Patient’s  age and overall health
  • The goals for treatment

Wait-and-see approach

  • Immediate treatment isn't necessary for everyone with a meningioma. A  small size slow-growing Meningioma without showing any signs or symptoms may not require treatment.
  • If the plan is not to undergo treatment for the Meningioma, periodical brain scans are required to evaluate its condition.
  • If the Meningioma is growing and needs to be treated, there are different treatment options.

Surgery is done to remove the Meningioma completely. But because of the location of the Meningioma, in some cases it is not possible to remove the entire tumor. In those cases, surgeons remove as much of the meningioma as possible.
Radiation therapy
If the Meningioma can't be completely removed surgically, radiation therapy may be required. The radiation therapy aims at destroying the remaining Meningioma cells and reduce the chance of recurrence. There are following radiation therapy options:

  • Stereotactic radiosurgery 
  • Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) 
  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) 
  • Proton beam 

Drug (chemotherapy) is rarely opted to treat it, except where there is no scope of surgery and radiation. 

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Brain Aneurysm

Brain Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a ballooning at a weak spot in an artery wall.  Aneurysms often occur in the aorta, brain, back of the knee, intestine or spleen. A ruptured aneurysm can result in internal bleeding and stroke. It can sometimes be fatal.

Aneurysms often have no symptoms until they rupture.

Treatment varies from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. The choice depends on the location, size and condition of the aneurysm.



Ruptured aneurysm

The tmain symptom of a ruptured aneurysm is sudden, severe headache. Common signs and symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm also include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stiff neck
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Seizure
  • A drooping eyelid
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Confusion

Leaking aneurysm

In some cases, an aneurysm may leak a slight amount of blood. This leaking (sentinel bleed) may cause  a sudden, extremely severe headache.

Unruptured aneurysm

An unruptured brain aneurysm may occur without any symptom, particularly if it's small. However, a larger unruptured aneurysm may press on brain tissues and nerves, causing the following symptoms:

  • Pain above and behind one eye
  • A dilated pupil
  • Change in vision or double vision
  • Numbness of one side of the face


The causes of brain aneurysm are unknown, but a spectrum of factors may increase the risk.

Risk factors

A number of factors can contribute to weakness in an artery wall and increase the risk of a brain aneurysm or aneurysm rupture. Brain aneurysms are more common in adults than in children and more common in women than in men.

Risk factors that develop over time

  • Cigarette smoking
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Drug abuse, particularly the use of cocaine
  • Heavy alcohol consumption

Some types of aneurysms may occur after a head injury or from certain blood infections (mycotic aneurysm).

Risk factors present at birth

Certain conditions that date to birth can be associated with an increased risk of developing a brain aneurysm. These include:

  • Inherited connective tissue disorders
  • Polycystic kidney disease, an inherited disorder
  • Abnormally narrow aorta 
  • Cerebral arterio-venous malformation 
  • Family history of brain aneurysm


When a brain aneurysm ruptures, the bleeding usually lasts only a few seconds. The blood can cause direct damage to surrounding cells, and the bleeding can damage or kill other cells. If the pressure becomes too elevated, the blood and oxygen supply to the brain may be disrupted to the point that loss of consciousness or even death may occur.

Complications that can develop after the rupture of an aneurysm include:

  • Re-bleeding
  • Vasospasm -   blood vessels in the brain may narrow erratically (vasospasm).
  • Hydrocephalus - blood can block circulation of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid).
  • Hyponatremia - Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured brain aneurysm can disrupt the balance of sodium in the blood. This may occur from damage to the hypothalamus, an area near the base of the brain.

A drop in blood-sodium levels (hyponatremia) can lead to swelling of brain cells and permanent damage.


The tests for detection include the following:

  • CT Scan
  • MRI
  • Cerebrospinal fluid test
  • Cerebral Angiogram


There are two common treatment options for a ruptured brain aneurysm.

  • Surgical clipping
  • Endovascular coiling 

A newer treatment option available for brain aneurysm is Flow diverters. Flow diverters may be particularly useful in larger aneurysms that can't be safely treated with other options.

Other Treatment options aimed at relieving symptoms and managing complications include the following:

  • Pain Relievers
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Anti seizure medication
  • Intervention to prevent stroke from insufficient blood flow
  • Lumber draining catheters and shunt surgery


In order to lower the risk of its rupture the following steps can be taken:

  • Discarding smoking and use  of recreational drugs. 
  •  Healthy  fat free diet and exercise. 


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Guillain-Barre syndrome

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disease in which one’s body's immune system attacks its own nerves. Usually the first symptoms are extreme weakness and tingling sensation. These symptoms can quickly spread and paralyze the whole body. Guillain-Barre syndrome, In its most severe form, is a medical emergency. Most people with the condition needs hospitalization.


  • Prickling  sensations in fingers, toes, ankles or wrists
  • Weakness in legs that spreads upwards
  • Inability to walk or climb stairs and unstable walking
  • Difficulty with facial movements, including speaking, chewing or swallowing
  • Double vision or inability to move eyes
  • Severe pain and cramp like feeling that becomes worse at night
  • Problem of bladder control or bowel function
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Low or high blood pressure
  • Breathing difficulty

 Guillain-Barre syndrome is now known to occur in several forms. The main types are:

  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP). The most common sign is muscle weakness in the lower part of the body and spreads upward.
  • Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). Paralysis starts in the eyes.
  • Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN).

The exact cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome isn't known. The disorder usually appears days or weeks after a respiratory or digestive tract infection. A surgery or vaccination can trigger Guillain-Barre syndrome. Recently, there have been cases reported following infection with the Zika virus and COVID-19 virus. 

Guillain-Barre syndrome is difficult to detect in its early stages. Its symptoms are similar to those of other neurological disorders and may vary from person to person. The following tests may be ordered by the doctor -

  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture
  • Electromyography
  • Nerve conduction studies  

Guillain-Barre syndrome has no total cure. Apart from medications, two types of treatments can expedite recovery and reduce the severity of the illness:

  • Plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) -  Plasmapheresis may work by removing the plasma of certain antibodies that contribute to the immune system's attack on the peripheral nerves.
  • Immunoglobulin therapy - High doses of immunoglobulin can block the damaging antibodies that may contribute to Guillain-Barre syndrome.

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Rhabdomyo Sarcoma

Rhabdomyo Sarcoma
Rhabdomyo sarcoma (RMS) is a rare category of cancer that develops  in soft tissue — specifically skeletal muscle tissue or sometimes hollow organs such as the bladder or uterus. It can occur at any age, but it mostly affects children.
Treatment depends on the type of Rhabdomyo sarcoma, the location, tumor size and whether it has spread. Treatment is usually a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Symbols depend on the location of the affected  area.
For Head & Neck : Headache, eye swelling, bleeding from the nose.
For urinary or reproductive system: Trouble urinating, bleeding, problem with bowel movement, mass or bleeding in Vagina or rectum.
For arms and legs: Swelling  or lump in the leg or arm, pain.
Causes and Risk Factors
The causes of this cancer is still not known. Some of the risk factors are the following:
Family history of cancer

  • Genetic syndrome
  • Diagnosis 

Imaging tests like – X Ray, CT Scan, MRI, PET Scan, Bone scan and biopsy.

Treatment for Rhabdomyo sarcoma involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

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A disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures.
Epilepsy may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke.
During a seizure, a person experiences abnormal behaviour, symptoms, and sensations, sometimes including loss of consciousness. There are few symptoms between seizures.
Epilepsy is usually treated by medication and in some cases by surgery, devices or dietary changes.
Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of awareness. Anyone can develop epilepsy. Epilepsy affects both males and females of all races, ethnic backgrounds and ages.
Because epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in the brain, seizures can affect any process your brain coordinates. Seizure signs and symptoms may include:

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell
  • Stiff muscles
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychological symptoms such as fear or anxiety 

Symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure. In most cases, a person with epilepsy will tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar every time. 
Types of seizures
Seizures are classified as either focal or generalized, based on how and where the abnormal brain activity begins.
Focal Seizure
Focal seizures appear to result from abnormal activity in just one area of the brain, These seizures fall into two categories:

  • Focal seizures without loss of consciousness
  • Focal seizures with loss of awareness

Generalized Seizure
Seizures that involve all areas of the brain are called generalized seizures. Six types of generalized seizures are there - 

  • Absence seizures - It  usually occur in children. They're characterized by staring into space with or without subtle body movements and a brief loss of awareness.
  • Tonic seizures -Tonic seizures cause stiff muscles and may affect consciousness. 
  • Atonic seizure – It cause  loss of muscle control.
  • Clonic seizures - Clonic seizures are associated with repeated or jerking muscle movements.
  • Myoclonic seizures - It  usually appear as sudden brief jerks or twitches and usually affect the upper body/
  • Tonic-clonic seizures -  It can cause an abrupt loss of consciousness and body stiffening, twitching and shaking. This can cause loss of bladder control or biting one’s tongue.

Epilepsy has no identifiable cause in most of the people. The  condition may be due to various factors, including:

  • Genetic influence
  • Head trauma 
  • Brain abnormalities
  • Infections like Meningitis, HIV, viral encephalitis 
  • Prenatal injury
  • Developmental disorders


  • Neurological examination
  • Blood tests
  • EEG
  • CT Scan
  • MRI / Functional MRI
  • PET Scan

The treatment of  epilepsy generally starts with medication. If medications cannot control the condition, doctors may propose surgery or other methods.

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Ankylosing Spondylites

Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease that causes some of the bones in the spine to fuse. This makes the spine to become stiff and can result in a hunched posture. If ribs are affected, it makes breathing painful. 
The condition is more common among men and usually begins in early adulthood. It reduces  flexibility in the spine and eventually it results in a hunched-forward posture. Pain in the back and joints is also common. Inflammation can also occur in other parts of the body 
Including the eyes.

There is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis, but treatment can lessen symptoms and helps to slow  down the progress of the disease. Treatment includes medication,,physiotherapy and in rare cases surgery.

Early signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis include pain and stiffness in the lower back and hips, especially in the morning and after periods of inactivity. Neck pain and fatigue are also common. Over time, symptoms might worsen. The most commonly affected  body parts include:

  • The joint between the base of the spine and the pelvis
  • The vertebrae in the lower back
  • The places where tendons and ligaments attach to bones, mainly in the spine, but sometimes along the back of the heel
  • The cartilage between the breastbone and the ribs
  • The hip and shoulder joints

Ankylosing spondylitis has no known specific cause, though genetic factors seem to be involved. 
Risk factors
Men are more likely to develop ankylosing spondylitis than are women. Most people who have ankylosing spondylitis have the HLA-B27 gene. But many people with this gene never get this disease.
In severe ankylosing spondylitis, new bone forms as part of the body's attempt to heal. This new bone gradually bridges the gap between vertebrae and eventually fuses sections of vertebrae. Those parts of the spine become stiff and inflexible. It can also stiffen the rib cage, restricting lung capacity and function. Other complications include:

  • Eye inflammation 
  • Compression fractures
  • Heart problems

Imaging tests like – Xray, CT Scan, MRI and certain blood tests that mark inflammation.

The goal of treatment is to relieve pain and stiffness and prevent or delay complications and spinal deformity. Ankylosing spondylitis treatment is most successful before the disease causes irreversible damage.
Treatment options include medication, Physical Therapy and in rare cases surgery like a hip joint replacement.

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Migraine is a bad type of throbbing head ache with other side symptoms like pulsing sensation, nausea and vomiting. It is a neurological disease usually occurs on one side of the head with extreme sensitivity towards light and sound, movement and sometimes smell also. Migraine persists for a considerable period of time and often keeps the patient knocked out for days.     
Symptoms of Migraine may include:

  • Severe head ache   
  • Throbbing and pulsing pain 
  • Sensitivity towards light and sound including movements and smell.  
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
  • Feeling of extreme hot or cold.
  • Dizziness 
  • Overall discomfort 
  • Pale skin color (in some situations)
  • Fever and diarrhea may exist in rare cases. 

The cause of migraine is not yet fully established. Usually, a terrible headache is felt when specific nerves existing in the blood vessels send signals of pain to the patient’s brain. In what situations the nerves acts like this, is still not understood.
Usually the following factors trigger Migraine:

  • Emotional stress, anxiety or worries.
  • Missing or delaying a meal.
  • Sensitivity towards particular preservatives in foods or intake of fermented or pickled food stuffs. 
  • Excessive consumption of Caffeine or sudden withdrawal from caffeine.
  • Using pain-relieving medications on a regular basis which has a rebound effect. 
  • Hormonal changes occurring to the women in their middle age. 
  • All types of flashing and fluorescent lights, including sunlight and light from the TV, computer or mobile phone.
  • Weather changes, and cold wind. 
  • Loud noises. 
  • Overexertion and deprivation from sleep.
  • Dieting and not drinking required quantity of water.
  • Smoking. 
  • Perfumes and other strong odors.
  • Adverse effects of certain medications 


To diagnose a migraine a doctor will ask a patient some questions about the symptoms and severity of the pain and try to track if the patient has anything specialthat makes it better or worse. How often the main occurs, what is the life style the patient is following and if there is any previous family history of Migraine are the other common considerations in detecting a migraine. 
The doctor may also prescribe some lab tests like blood tests and CT scan, EEG or MRI to rule out other possibilities.   


Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. It cannot be cured. But medication can manage and improve the situation. Abortive and preventive, two types of medications are used in treatment of Migraine.  
Abortive medications helps stopping or decreasing the pain when the pain still remains mild during the initial stage.  
But doctors prescribe preventive (prophylactic) medications in severe headaches with an evidence of occurring more than four times within a month. and are significantly interfering with your normal activities. These medicines are used to control the intensity and severity of the disease. 

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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder of central nervous system. This disease causes damage in the brain that develops shaking, stiff muscles, movement, coordination and speech.  It is a lifelong condition that sets in gradually and becomes worse in later stage. 
The signs of Parkinson’s initially starts with mild complications and gradually become more and more severe. The common symptoms include:

  • Tremor or shaking 
  • Slowed movement
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Impaired posture 
  • Balance problems
  • Speech impairment 
  • Writing difficulty

The cause of Parkinson’s is not identified. But genetic cause is believed to play an important role. Exposure to toxic environmental factors may also help developing this disease. Age and gender are other influencing factors as it occurs in late life and mostly it affects men.  
In the beginning of this disease the symptoms are mild and get unnoticed. But as it sets in the symptoms become apparent and doctors usually confirm it from the symptoms only. There is no lab test to confirm Parkinson’s disease.  CT scan and MRI these imaging tests are often prescribed to rule out chance of other diseases. 
Parkinson’s disease has no cure. Slowly it aggravates. But symptomatic treatment can provide support and help relieving some of the discomforts and slow down the deterioration.   

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The yips are a type neurological condition that may relate with performance anxiety. In this disease few specific muscles causes common involuntary wrist spasms, oftenexperienced by some golfers when they try to putt. However, this condition may also occurs in people involved with other types of sports like cricket and baseball.
The symptomsof the yips are:

  • Involuntary muscle jerk, 
  • Tremors
  • Twitches and spasms 
  • Freezing.

Usually, overuse of a setof particular muscles causes this condition. Often, golfers and sports people suffer with this disease. Thisis a type of focal dystonia that occurs in the form of involuntary muscle contractions while conducting a specific task. Anxiety may worsens the symptoms.
Treatment of the yips deals with changing the technique and equipment that improves the muscle contraction. Various possible strategies to tackle this physical issue include:

  • Changingythe grip. 
  • Using a different putter. 
  • Mental skills training. 
  • Botox injection. 

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A sudden attack of uncontrolled electrical disturbance created in the brain is called seizure. It may have an immediate impact in the patient’s behavior, movements and feelings. It may also affect levels of consciousness. If two or more seizures occurs within a gap of 24 hours and no other apparent cause is identified it usually considered to be an epileptic seizure.

Seizures are of different types which vary in terms of symptoms, causes and severity also. It may start in different parts of the brain and spread in different ranges.  Most of the times seizures persist from 30 seconds to two minutes. If a seizure lasts for more than five minutes it needs to be treated as a medical emergency.


Signs before a seizure occurs:

  • Sudden feeling of fear
  • Feeling of being sick
  • Dizziness
  • A change in vision
  • A jerky movement of the arms and legs
  • An out-of-body sensation
  • Headache
  • Signs indicating a seizure is in progress:
  • Losing consciousness
  • Confusion
  • uncontrollable muscle spasms
  • Drooling
  • Falling
  • A strange taste in the mouth
  • Tooth clenching or grinding
  • Tongue biting
  • Rapid eye movements
  • Making unusual noises
  • Losing control over bladder or bowel function
  • Mood swings


Seizures are caused by various factors. It often occurs after a stroke. Conditions like a head injury, or a severe infection that affects brain like meningitis may be responsible for a seizure also. Sometimes no exact cause of a seizure is identified in many patients.

Anything that disrupts nerve cells’ communication process of creating, sending and receiving electrical impulses can create a seizure. In some patients seizures may occur due to genetic mutations.

Here are the common causes of a seizure:

  • Epilepsy.
  • High fever with a possibility of an infection like meningitis
  • Lack of sleep
  • Flashing lights, or various visual stimulants
  • Low blood sodium (hyponatremia)
  • Using certain medications, like pain relievers or antidepressant drugs.
  • Head trauma
  • Abnormalities developed in the blood vessels of the brain
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus, erythematosus and multiple sclerosis
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumor
  • Use of illegal drugs, such as or cocaine
  • Misusing alcohol in times of withdrawal or during extreme intoxication
  • COVID-19 virus infection


Doctorsthoroughly review a patient after a seizure that includes symptoms, physical conditions and medical history. At the same time, several tests are conducted to identify the cause of seizure.

A patient may undergo the following tests:

  • A neurological exam.Patient’s behavior, motor abilities and mental function are checked to detect if any abnormality exists in functioningof the brain or nervous system.
  • Blood tests.Bloodtests are conducted to find out sugar levels,existence of any of infections, genetic conditions or electrolyte imbalances.
  • Lumbar puncture.Sometimes sample of cerebrospinal fluid is collected for testing when an infection is suspected
  • An electroencephalogram (EEG).This imaging tests is needed to ascertain if seizure may recur again and it also helps detecting the cause of seizure.  
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI scan creates detailed views of the patient’s brain. Doctorscan detect lesions or abnormalities in brain that may lead to seizures.
  • Computerized tomography (CT).In this process, X-rays create cross-sectional images of the brain. It helpsreveal abnormalities of brain such as tumors, cysts or bleeding that may cause a seizure.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET). A PET scan uses low-dose radioactive material that is passed through the vein to visualize brain’s active areas to detect any existing abnormalities.
  • Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). A SPECT test also uses low-dose radioactive material that is injected into vein to get a detailed, 3D image of the blood flow activity in the patient’s brain that makes easy to understand what exactly happens in the brain during a seizure. If needed a type of SPECT test subtraction ictal SPECT is also prescribed to get better and more detailed test results.


Here are the common therapies used in treatment of seizure:


There are varieties of anti-seizure medications that are used to treat patients experiencing seizures. The doctor decides on the choice of medicines depending on the patient’s age, severity, cause and other health factors.

Dietary therapy

Sometimes a letogenic diet is prescribed to get better result in controlling seizure. It is strict diet program high in fat and very low in carbohydrates difficult to follow as only a limited range of foods are allowed.  


Usually a surgery is taken into consideration if other treatment measures do not work effectively. There are different types of surgeries such as Lobectomy (lesionectomy). Multiple Subpial Transection. Corpus Callosotomy. Hemispherectomy (hemispherotomy). Thermal Ablation (laser interstitial thermal therapy).

Electrical stimulation

Doctors may also suggest this process to get relief in seizures. Here also stimulation can be of various types such as VagusNerve Stimulation, Responsive Nneuro-Stimulation or Deep Brain Stimulation.


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Alzheimer’s is a progressive neurological disease that impairs memory. In addition to memory, it also destroys the patient’s ability to think and perform simple daily life activities.  This is identified as one of the common cause of Dementia.  In this disease, brain cellsdegenerate and die which interferes with intellectual and social skills. It creates permanent damage of the brain and has no cure. Finally, at the advanced stage, brain damage and severe memory impairment cause dehydration, malnutrition and other infections also that lead the patient to death.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s

Memory Loss

  • Forgetfulness is the prime sign of Alzheimer’s. Sometimes the person affected by this disease can feel the difficulty before others can realize it. In many cases it is reversed. The people around can notice it though the patient still remains unaware of this memory loss. Initial problems may include:
  • Forgetting names of familiar places, objects and people around.
  • Misplacing daily use objects or putting them in unusual places.
  • Inability to find the right words to express thoughts.
  • Asking repetitive questions.
  • Forgetting appointments and events and failing to recall them later.
  • Getting lost in apparently known locations.
  • Difficulty in logical thinking

Reasoning and thinking and concentrating on work becomes a challenge. Dealing with numbers, making payments on time and managing finance becomes difficult. Multi-tasking becomes more difficult.

  • Problem in making judgments

Brain damage impairs reasoning power that interferes with judging situations and making the right decision. Simple things like choosing clothes for a particular weather condition becomes difficult.

  • Inability to plan and perform activities.

Simple works like cooking a meal or playing a game that need step by step functioning becomes a challenge for the person with Alzheimer’s. In a more advanced stage of the disease independently performing personal care activities becomes impossible.  

  • Change in behavior pattern

Brain changes in Alzheimer’s causes change in the personality. The common reactions usually include:

  • Developing Depression
  • Apathy and mood swings
  • Social withdrawal
  • Developing distrust for no reason
  • Delusion
  • Wandering
  • Irritability and Aggressiveness
  • Change in sleeping habit


Abnormalities of two proteins ‘Plaques’ and ‘Tangles’ are identified as the causes of Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers believe there can be other factors also related to generic, life style or environmental causes.

  • Plaques

Plaquesare the clumps of beta-amyfoldprotein which accumulates outside the brain cells. It has a toxic effect on neurons that damages and destroysthem. It also affects the cell to cell communications.

  •    Tangles

To perform different functions, brain cells depend on internal transportation ofvarious nutrients and essential materials.Proper functioning of this internal system depends on Tau protein. Twisted threads of tau proteinform abnormal tangles within the cells of an Alzheimer’s affected brain. This affects the structured transportation system and brain’s normal functioning.


  • Aging

Though Alzheimer’s is not a normal outcome of aging, usually people get detected this disease between above 60 years.

  • Family history

People are likely to be more exposed to chance of having this disease if direct family relations like parents or siblings have a record of Alzheimer’s.

  • Down syndrome

People with Down syndrome have a higher chance of getting Alzheimer’s at later stage of life.

  • MCI

People identified with MCI or Mild Cognitive impairment are also more likely to develop Alzheimer’s and dementia.

  • Head Trauma

Head injury often lead to Alzheimer’s. Research reveals, risk is high within six months to two years of the traumatic brain Injury or TBI.

  • Excessive consumption of alcohol

Over intake of alcohol affects brain functioning and creates braindisorder that leads to Alzheimer’s and Dementia.

Poor sleep patterns, heart health, obesity, smoking, lack of exercise, High Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Uncontrolled type 2 Diabetes, and lifelong learning are the other causes that aggravates the risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease.


Todetect if a person is suffering from Alzheimer’s, the doctor may suggestsfollowing multiple medical tests:

  •  Physical Tests

Doctors physically check a patient to evaluate the neurological health conditions.Testsrelated to muscle strength, reflexes,ability to make movements are done. Capacityof various sensory organs with additional assessment of patient’s balance and including brain’s coordinatingpower.

  • Mental Tests

Mental tests are conducted to check the person’s memory health and thinking ability.

  • Lab tests

Clinical tests play an important role in detecting Alzheimer’s.Blood tests are suggested to rule out the causes of memory challenges due to hormone deficits or mal-functioning of thyroid gland other than Alzherimer’s.

  • Neuropsychological Testing

Neuropsychological tests are prescribed in an early onset of Alzheimer’s disease.  This process deals with in-depth assessment and evaluationsofpatient’s mental status, functional abilitythat also includes the recent changes in the brain.  

  • Brain Imaging

Brain imaging helps detecting various changes and abnormalities of the brain. This includesthe following technologies:

  •  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI is a completely painless, highly effective process that produces clear and detailed images of brain with help strong magnetic field created by radio waves.

  •    Computerized Tomography (CT)

In this process,X-Raypenetrating a patient’s body producesdifferent cross-sectional reflectionsfrom different angles.Doctors assess patient’s brain with help of these images.

  • Position Emission Tomography (PET)

In this process aradioactive fluid is injected which goes to the brain and passes through various parts of brain. It works as a tracer making it possible to assess brain’s functionalities and abnormalities through an overhead scanner.This process is effecting in tracing plaques and tangles two main factors ofthis disease.


Alzheimer’s creates permanent brain damage and is not curable. No treatment can stop the death of the brain cells caused by this disease.

Symptomatic treatments can improve the quality of life. Some drugs can improve symptoms like confusions, anxiety, sleep problems, irritability and restlessness. The drugs can slow down the progress of Alzheimer’s and help the patient remain independent for a longer period of time.


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