The center of Neurosciences, at AMRI Hospitals has a demonstrated track record in providing highest levels of professional expertise in the varied field of Neuro diagnostics, Neurology, Neuro surgery, Neuro Anaesthesia and Interventional Neurology. We are backed by a team of the country's best neurologists & surgeons who have immense knowledge and experience in diagnosis, treatment and patient-care management. The Neurosciences Centre is committed to follow multidisciplinary approach & advanced techniques for treating life threatening & challenging neurological disorders. At AMRI Hospitals we are fully equipped to provide 24*7 comprehensive evaluation and therapeutic care to a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke, seizures, brain & spine disorders, and congenital diseases.
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A tension headache is the most common type of headache. It can cause mild, moderate, or intense pain behind the eyes and in the head and neck. It often headache feels like a tight band around their forehead.
There can be number reasons behind a tension headache, including stress, inadequate sleep and poor posture. The main symptom is pain on both sides of the head. Treatments include pain relievers and other medication, stress reduction, ice or heat on sore muscles.
Tension-type headaches are divided into two main categories — episodic and chronic.
Episodic tension headaches
Episodic tension-type headaches can last from 30 minutes to a week. Frequent episodic tension-type headaches occur less than 15 days a month for at least three months. Frequent episodic tension-type headaches may become chronic.
Chronic tension-type headaches
This type of tension-type headache lasts hours and may be continuous. If the headaches occur 15 or more days a month for at least three months, they're considered chronic.
Tension headaches are caused by muscle contractions in the head and neck regions. These types of contractions can occur due to -
Some people develop tension headaches after staring at a computer screen for a long time or after driving for long periods. Cold temperatures may also trigger a tension headache.
Other trigger factors include:
The pain is usually mild or moderate, but it can also be intense. In this case, one might confuse tension headache with a migraine. But tension headaches don’t have all the symptoms of migraines, such as nausea and vomiting.
Basic remedies are -
Using medications in conjunction with stress management techniques is effective.
Tay Sachs disease is an uncommon genetic disorder that passes down from the parentsto the children. In this disease absence of a particular enzyme create trouble in breaking fatty substances. As a result the fatty substances becomes toxic and get accumulates in the brain and the spinal cord which causes death of nerve cells and neurological problems.
Usually symptoms starts showing up when the baby becomes 3 months old. The symptoms increase and usually flair up within age 4. The symptoms include:
Low muscle tone and muscle weakness
Tay Sachs disease is a hereditary disease. A baby gets affected by it if both the parents are carrier of this disease.
To diagnose Tay Sachs disease, doctors prescribe blood tests that measures level of ‘hexosaminidase A’ protein in the blood. Often, the affected child will have no count or much reduced count of this protein. Also, cherry red eye spot, a typical sign is checked to diagnose this disease.
Tay Sachs disease is a fatal disease. So far no treatment is there and has no cure. Only symptomatic medicines are provided to minimize the conditions.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces within the spine, which can put pressure on the nerves that passes through the spine. Spinal stenosis develops usually in the lower back and the neck. The condition develops due to age-related wear and tear. Symptoms include pain, numbness, muscle weakness and impaired bladder or bowel control. Some people with may not have symptom. Treatment includes medication, physiotherapy and possibly surgery.
Spinal stenosis has many causes. Age related wear and tear and injuries are risk factors. The causes of Spinal stenosis include –
Symptoms of lower back (lumbar) spinal stenosis include:
Symptoms of neck (cervical) spinal stenosis include:
Apart from checking medical history and physical examination the doctor may advise -Imaging tests like X ray, MRI, CT Scan or CT Myelogram.
Treatment for Spinal stenosis include medication, physical therapy, steroid injections, decompression procedure and surgery.
Shaken Baby Syndrome is an extremely serious brain injury that develops from forcefully shaking an infant by parents or caregivers out of frustration or anger. It may cause permanent brain damage or death also.
Shaken Baby Syndrome includes the following symptoms:
Tiny babies have weak neck muscles which cannot support their head unless they grow up a little. At this stage shaking them hard makes their brain move back and forth inside their head that results into a very serious permanent brain injury. It often becomes fatal or develops blindness, hearing loss, seizures, cerebral palsy and learning disability.
Often it becomes difficult to diagnosis if somebody shook the baby or not as the babies cannot speak.
Once the doctors suspects a Shaken Baby Syndrome, they might order imaging tests like X-ray, CT scan or MRI are the usual tests or eye tests to check evidences for retinal bleeding.
Shaken Baby Syndrome needs immediate attention before it becomes too late. The adults’ confession and cooperation is extremely important to start the treatment. The process of treatment depends on the severity of the conditions. If necessary immediate breathing support and a surgery might be ordered to stop bleeding in the brain.
Sacroilitis causes inflammation in one or both the Sacroiliac joints that connects lower portion of spine and pelvis. The pain occurs in the lower back region, buttocks and spread towards the legs. Standing for a long time or climbing stairs can aggravate the pain.
Low back pain is the primary symptom of this disease.
The common causes that develop Sacroilitis include:
Initially a doctor physically checks a patient suffering from pain in the lower back and buttocks. If Sacroiliitis is suspected, the doctor may prescribe the following tests:
Treatment procedure of Sacroiliitis largely depends on the cause of developing this disease and its condition. Managing pain and treatment may include:
Naegleria is a rare type of brain infection. This is a fatal disease which caused by a type of brain eating amoeba.
Symptoms of Naegleria include headache, nausea and vomiting and fever in the initial stage of the disease. In more advance stage, symptoms like stiff neck, confusion, losing balance and attention towards surroundings, hallucinations and seizures occurs.
Naegleria occurs if Naegleria fowleri, a special type of free-living amoeba enters a human body usually through nose and travel to the brain. This amoeba is found in warm freshwater riversor lakes or springs. Most of the times swimmers or divers get it while practicing water sports.
Naegleria infection is diagnosed through a clinical test of Cerebrospinal fluid. In addition to this doctors may also order imaging tests like CT scan or MRI.
A few people survive Naegleria as they are timely diagnosed. But most of the times it becomes fatal. Several antibiotics and anti-fungal drugs are used to control this disease.
Meralgia paresthetica is a health condition that occurs due to compression of the particular nerve responsible for providing sensation to the upper portion of leg in human body. It develops burning pain, tingling feeling and numbness in the outer part of thigh.
Here are the common symptoms of Meralgia paresthetica:
The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve passes through abdomen to the groin and to the upper leg and supplies feeling of sensation to the upper leg. If it gets pinched or trapped under inguinal ligament this disease develops. Most of the times Meralgia paresthetica occurs as a result of the following conditions:
Usually, doctors diagnose Meralgia parestheticawith the help of physical examination medical history. The confirmatory tests of this disease include:
To treat Meralgia paresthetica, three types of processes are followed:
Conservative measure: It recommends losing weight, wearing loose fitting clothing and taking common pain relievers.
Medication: If conservative measure doesn’t improve the condition, injection, anti-depressant medicines and anti-seizure medicines are prescribed.
Surgery: In rare situations surgery is suggested to decompress the pinched nerve.
An aneurysm is a ballooning at a weak spot in an artery wall. Aneurysms often occur in the aorta, brain, back of the knee, intestine or spleen. A ruptured aneurysm can result in internal bleeding and stroke. It can sometimes be fatal.
Aneurysms often have no symptoms until they rupture.
Treatment varies from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. The choice depends on the location, size and condition of the aneurysm.
The tmain symptom of a ruptured aneurysm is sudden, severe headache. Common signs and symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm also include:
In some cases, an aneurysm may leak a slight amount of blood. This leaking (sentinel bleed) may cause a sudden, extremely severe headache.
An unruptured brain aneurysm may occur without any symptom, particularly if it's small. However, a larger unruptured aneurysm may press on brain tissues and nerves, causing the following symptoms:
The causes of brain aneurysm are unknown, but a spectrum of factors may increase the risk.
A number of factors can contribute to weakness in an artery wall and increase the risk of a brain aneurysm or aneurysm rupture. Brain aneurysms are more common in adults than in children and more common in women than in men.
Risk factors that develop over time
Some types of aneurysms may occur after a head injury or from certain blood infections (mycotic aneurysm).
Risk factors present at birth
Certain conditions that date to birth can be associated with an increased risk of developing a brain aneurysm. These include:
When a brain aneurysm ruptures, the bleeding usually lasts only a few seconds. The blood can cause direct damage to surrounding cells, and the bleeding can damage or kill other cells. If the pressure becomes too elevated, the blood and oxygen supply to the brain may be disrupted to the point that loss of consciousness or even death may occur.
Complications that can develop after the rupture of an aneurysm include:
A drop in blood-sodium levels (hyponatremia) can lead to swelling of brain cells and permanent damage.
The tests for detection include the following:
There are two common treatment options for a ruptured brain aneurysm.
In order to lower the risk of its rupture the following steps can be taken:
Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disease in which one’s body's immune system attacks its own nerves. Usually the first symptoms are extreme weakness and tingling sensation. These symptoms can quickly spread and paralyze the whole body. Guillain-Barre syndrome, In its most severe form, is a medical emergency. Most people with the condition needs hospitalization.
Guillain-Barre syndrome is now known to occur in several forms. The main types are:
The exact cause of Guillain-Barre syndrome isn't known. The disorder usually appears days or weeks after a respiratory or digestive tract infection. A surgery or vaccination can trigger Guillain-Barre syndrome. Recently, there have been cases reported following infection with the Zika virus and COVID-19 virus.
Guillain-Barre syndrome is difficult to detect in its early stages. Its symptoms are similar to those of other neurological disorders and may vary from person to person. The following tests may be ordered by the doctor -
Guillain-Barre syndrome has no total cure. Apart from medications, two types of treatments can expedite recovery and reduce the severity of the illness:
MD(medicine),DM (neurology)Fellowship in Neurointervention & Endovascular SurgeryVisit Profile
M. S., M.Ch (NEUROSURGERY) - GIPMER - G B Pant Hospital, NEW DELHIVisit Profile
MD (Medicine), DM (Neurology), Fellowship in Interventional NeurologyVisit Profile
MS Ortho., Neurospine Fellowship(Park Clinic), Spine Training (NUH, Singapore)Visit Profile
MS,M.CH(Neuro Surgery- SGPGIMS) Fellowship in Minimal Invasive Brain & Spine SurgeryVisit Profile