Oncology Treatment | Best Oncologist in Kolkata - AMRI Hospitals










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Available Treatment Facilities

  • Medical Oncology  : Expert panel of Doctors along with in-house Frank Ross pharmacy for genuine cancer drugs 
  • Radiation Oncology : Electra Synergy Linear Accelerator is providing the following procedures 3DCRT | IMRT | IGRT | VMAT
  • Surgical Oncology : Breast & GI Onco Surgery, Gynae Onco Surgery , Head & Neck Surgery, Uro-Onco Surgery
  • Haemato Oncology : Advanced care for all Haemato Oncological problems

Best Oncologist in Kolkata

The Oncology department of AMRI Hospitals stands at the forefront of excellence in providing precision cancer care. We understand the significance of personalized care and aim to provide top notch facilities along with expertise from the best oncologists of Kolkata. At AMRI, our prime focus is to build a holistic and integrated environment for cancer patients under the supervision of our top cancer specialists. Our team consists of highly experienced and well-trained Radiation Oncologists, Medical Oncologists, and Surgical Oncologists offering a wide range of treatments and medical procedures including surgeries, chemotherapies, blood transfusions and transplants considering the patient’s ongoing condition. We are in the process of establishing the most advanced Haemato-pathology service that will help in looking after the requirements of the outside world. We are also on the verge of setting up a transfusion lab at Mukundapur, which will mark our support and expertise in the blood transfusion services. We offer treatments for: Blood Cancers Thalassemia Anaemia including complex causes of aplastic anaemia & thalassemia Bleeding and clotting disorders Auto-immune disorders Inherited disorders AMRI promises its’ oncology patients the most advanced and sophisticated cancer treatment. The presence of the best oncologists and the latest technologies makes it possible. Treatment planning is done in the widely accepted Monte Carlo based calculation system. We also make pre-treatment verification imaging available both in 2D and 3D, that ensures highly efficient treatment. The Institute of Oncology & Radiotherapy at Dhakuria is renowned for providing some of the best cancer treatment in India.

Radiotherapy

Advanced Treatment Facilities

  • Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy (VMAT)
  • Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)
  • Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
  • 3DCRT
  • Conventional
  • Electron
  • Palliative Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy at AMRI Dhakuria

  • Flexible beam shaping
  • Active motion management
  • Digitally Controlled, Clinically Focused
  • Largest IGRT field of view (50x26) cm
  • 45cm isocenter clearance
  • High quality imaging modalities
  • MOSAIQ - comprehensive PIS
  • 4D kV image guidance
  • PET Based Planning

Diseases & Procedures
Diseases | Procedures
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V
Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that occurs in the vagina, the muscular tube that connects the uterus with outer genitals. Vaginal cancer most commonly develops in the cells that line the surface of the vagina. Diagnosis of vaginal cancer  at its early stage has the best chance for a cure. Vaginal cancer that spreads beyond the vagina is much more difficult to treat.

Symptoms

At the early stage vaginal cancer may not cause any signs and symptoms. As it progresses, signs and symptoms show up such as -

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding - after intercourse or after menopause
  • Watery vaginal discharge
  • A lump or mass in the vagina
  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Constipation
  • Pelvic pain

Types

Vaginal cancer has been classified into various types based on the site where the cancer begins.

  • Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma - which begins in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the vagina, and is the most common type.
  • Vaginal adenocarcinoma -  which begins in the glandular cells on the surface of the vagina.
  • Vaginal melanoma - which develops in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) of the vagina.
  • Vaginal sarcoma - which develops in  the connective tissue cells or muscles cells in the walls of the vagina.

Causes & Risk factors

It's not clear what causes vaginal cancer. In general, cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic mutation that turns normal cells into abnormal cells.

Risk factors include:

  • Increasing age
  • Atypical cells in the vagina called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Exposure to miscarriage prevention drug
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Early age at first intercourse
  • Smoking
  • HIV infection

Complications

Vaginal cancer may spread (metastasize) to distant areas of one’s body, such as your lungs, liver and bones.

 

 

Diagnosis

Vaginal cancer is sometimes found during a routine pelvic exam before signs and symptoms become evident. The other investigations include:

  • Imaging tests like CT Scan, MRI, PET
  • Inspecting the vagina with a magnifying instrument
  • Removing a sample of vaginal tissue for testing

Treatment

The  treatment options for vaginal cancer depend on several factors, including the type of vaginal cancer and its stage. In general  vaginal cancer typically includes surgery and radiation.

Surgery

Types of surgery that may be used to treat vaginal cancer include:

  • Removal of small tumors or lesions
  • Removal of the vagina (vaginectomy)
  • Removal of the majority of the pelvic organs (pelvic exenteration)

If the patient’s vagina is completely removed, a surgery to construct a new vagina.is required.

Radiation therapy

Radiation can be delivered two ways:

  • External radiation
  • Internal radiation

 

Other options

In some cases Chemotherapy is also required

Prevention

  • Annual pelvic exam
  • HPV vaccine
  • Practicing safe sex
  • No smoking

 

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T
Tonsil cancer

Tonsil cancer

Tonsil cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that forms in a tonsil. Tonsils are two oval-shaped pads in the back of the mouth which are part of the body's germ-fighting immune system. Tonsil cancer can cause difficulty swallowing and a sensation that something is caught in your throat. Tonsil cancer is often diagnosed late,  when cancer has spread to adjacent areas, such as the lymph nodes in the neck.

Treatments for tonsil cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Symptoms

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • A sensation that something is caught in the back of your throat
  • Swelling and pain in the neck
  • Earache
  • Jaw stiffness

 

Causes

It's not clear what causes tonsil cancer, but it is found that human papilloma virus (HPV) is increasingly playing a role. This common sexually transmitted infection is detected in most tonsil cancer cases. Tonsil cancer caused by HPV tends to occur at a younger age and is more likely to respond well to available treatments.

Risk factors

The following factors may increase the risk of tonsil cancer:

  • Using tobacco
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Being infected with human papillomavirus (HPV)

Prevention

  • No tobacco use
  •  Limited alcohol drinking
  •  Regular dental care
  •  HPV vaccine

Diagnosis

Tests and procedures used to diagnose tonsil cancer include:

  • Physical examination of throat and neck
  •  Removing a tissue sample for testing
  •  Imaging tests – CT Scan, MRI, PET

Treatment

Tonsil cancer treatments depend on the size, stage and HPV status of the cancer, as well as one’s overall health. Tonsil cancer treatment options  include surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Surgery

The goal of surgery for tonsil cancer is to remove as much of the cancer cells as possible. Surgery can be used to treat all stages of tonsil cancer.

 

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy might be used alone to treat early stage cancers that haven't grown beyond the tonsil. Sometimes radiation therapy is used after surgery if the cancer can't be removed completely or if there's a risk that the cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes. Radiation can also be combined with chemotherapy as an initial treatment or as an additional treatment after surgery.

Chemotherapy

For tonsil cancer, chemotherapy is usually combined with radiation therapy. It can also be used alone to slow the growth of tonsil cancer that has recurred or has spread to other areas of the body.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation specialists in speech therapy, swallowing therapy, dietetics, physical therapy and occupational therapy help with rehabilitation that may be necessary after surgery or radiation therapy.

 

 

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T
Tongue cancer

Tongue Cancer

Tongue cancer begins in the cells of the tongue. This is one of several kinds of oral cancers. Tongue cancer is less common than many other types. Most people who get it are older adults. It’s rare in children.

There are two types of Tongue Cancer. One is called oral tongue cancer because it affects the part of tongue  that one can stick out. The other happens at the base of the Tongue where it connects to the throat. This type, known as Oro pharyngeal cancer, is often diagnosed after it has spread to the lymph nodes in one’s neck.

Several types of cancer can affect the tongue, but tongue cancer most often begins in the thin, flat squamous cells that line the surface of the tongue. Treatment for tongue cancer usually requires surgery along with Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted drug therapy.

Treatment for advanced tongue cancers can impact one’s ability to speak and eat. A skilled rehabilitation team can help the patient with changes that result from tongue cancer effects.

Causes

The human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause cancers on the base of the tongue.  It’s the most common sexually transmitted infection. There are many types of HPV. The ones that raise the risk of getting cancer are called high-risk HPV.

Other causes of Tongue cancer include -

  • Tobacco chewing
  • Excessive Alcohol drinking
  • Jagged teeth
  • Bad maintenance of teeth and gums

Diagnosis

  • Oral examination
  • Imaging tests lie X-ray or CT (computerized tomography) scan
  • Examination of sample of tissue from the patient’s mouth ( biopsy)

Treatment
The treatment will depend on the location and stage of the cancerous growth.

The main treatments for tongue cancer are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, either combined or on their own.

Early stage

Early cancer means the patient’s cancer is smaller than 4cm and is contained within the tongue. The most common treatment is to remove the affected area by surgery.

Advanced stage

Advanced cancer means the cancer is larger than 4cm. Or it has grown outside the tongue, invading other tissues or lymph nodes. The patient may require a combination of all of these treatments:

surgery to remove the cancer from tongue or the lymph nodes in your neck
reconstructive surgery
radiotherapy after surgery – this might be combined with chemotherapy
The patient may require rehab therapy afterwards to help chew, move the tongue, swallow and speak better.

Prevention

Many cases of base-of-the-tongue cancer are caused by HPV. But some steps can help avoid the risk of getting tongue cancer.

  • HPV vaccination
  • Use of condoms for sexual acts
  • Avoid any form of Tobacco consumption
  • No excessive or frequent alcohol intake
  • Maintaining a good oral health

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T
Throat cancer

Throat cancer develops in one’s throat (pharynx) or voice box (larynx). It can affect the mouth, sinuses, nose or throat. Symptoms include a sore or lump that doesn't heal, a persistent sore throat, trouble swallowing and changes in the voice. Treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

Types of Throat Cancer  
Specific terms are used to differentiate the part of the throat where cancer originated. These include -

  • Nasopharyngeal cancer begins in the part of the throat just behind the nose.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer begins in the oropharynx — the area just behind the mouth that includes tonsils.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer (Laryngopharyngeal cancer) begins in the lower part of the throat, just above the esophagus and windpipe.
  • Glottic cancer begins in the vocal cords.
  • Supraglottic cancer begins in the upper portion of the voice box 
  • Subglottic cancer begins in the lower portion of the voice box, below the vocal cords.

Symptoms

  • Cough
  • Changes in one's voice, such as hoarseness or not speaking clearly
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Pain in the ears 
  • A lump or sore 
  • Sore throat
  • Weight loss

Causes and risk factors
It's not clear what causes the mutation of cells that develops into throat cancer. But some factors may increase the risk which include:

  • Smoking and chewing tobacco
  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Viral infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus
  • Unhealthy diet  
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Exposure to toxic substances at work

Diagnosis
The following diagnostic procedures are advised:

  • Using a scope to get a closer look at  the throat. Like laryngoscope to examin one’s voice box. 
  • Removing a tissue sample for testing. 
  • Test to detect HPV 
  • Imaging tests  - CT Scan, MRI and PET CT 

Treatment
The  treatment options are based on factors lke location and stage of one’s throat cancer, the type of cells involved, whether the cells show signs of HPV infection.
However, the treatment may include the following – Surgery, Radiation therapy. Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, Immuno therapy and Rehabilitation regime.
 

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S
Soft palate cancer

Soft palate cancer develops in the cells of the soft palate. Soft palate is located on the upper portion of the back of the mouth, behind the teeth. Soft palate cancer is regarded as a kind of throat cancer. It is usually treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Symptoms

  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Speaking difficulty
  • Bleeding
  • Bad breath
  • Pain in the mouth
  • Prolonged sores in the mouth
  • Loose teeth
  • Pain in swallowing
  • Loss of Weight
  • Ear pain
  • Painful swelling in the neck
  • Long standing white patches in the mouth


Causes and Risk Factors

Soft palate cancer forms when a genetic mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Some of the risk factors include –

  • Smoking and tobacco use
  • Excessive alcohol drinking
  • Getting infected with human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Medications that suppress the immune system

Diagnosis

  • Physical checking of the patient’s soft palate by the doctor. 
  • Removing a tissue sample for testing. 
  • Imaging tests like CT Scan, MRI and PET Scan

Treatment

The following treatment options are available:

Surgery,  reconstructive surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, rehabilitative services like speech therapy, palliative care.

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S
Skin cancer

Skin cancer is developed by the abnormal and rapid growth of skin cells. It is a common type of cancer that primarily occurs on skin that is exposed to the sunlight. But it can occur on skin of other body parts also that remain covered and is rarely getexposed to sun.


Types of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is of various types. The most common ones include: 

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma 
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Melanoma 

There are few other less common types of skin cancers also that are: 

  • Kaposi Sarcoma 
  • Merkel Cell Carcinoma 
  • Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma 

Symptoms
Basal Cell Carcinoma usually appears on parts exposed to sun with symptoms that includes: 

  • A flat, brown or sometimes flesh colored scar-like lesion
  • A waxy or pearly bump 
  • A crusty surface sore that bleeds and comes back even after it heals. 

Squamous Cell Carcinoma usually ha the following signs: 

  • A firm, red nodule may develop on a body part that is exposed to sunlight. 
  • A flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface

Signs of Melanoma includes:

  • A large brownish patch with darker speckles
  • A mole that changes color, grows bigger or bleeds
  • Develops a small lesion that usually has irregular border or portions that may take different colors like red, pink, white, blue or blue-black. 
  • Sometimes a painful lesion may develop that itches or burns
  • Dark lesions may appear on palms, soles, fingertips or toes. 
  • Ark lesions may also develop on mucous membranes lining of mouth, nose, vagina or anus.

Causes
Skin cancer develops when mutations occur in the DNA of skin cells. Uncontrolled growth of cancerous skin cells forms a scar or lump. People who spend many hours under direct sunlight or get exposed to certain substances like arsenic may have a greater chance of developing skin cancer. Fair skinned people reportedly have become sufferer of skin cancer than people with darker skin color. Exposure to radiation, family history and existence of many moles in the body are also identified as the possible causes that lends to develop skin cancer. 

Diagnosis 
Skin cancer is diagnosed by conducting a skin biopsy. 

Treatment 
Treatment of skin cancer may vary depending on the size, type and the depth of the disease. 
Here are the types of treatment that is usually used to treat a skin cancer:

  • Freezing 
  • Excisional Surgery 
  • Mohs Surgery 
  • Curettage and Electrodesiccation or cryotherapy 
  • Radiation Therapy 
  • Chemo Therapy 
  • Photo dynamic Therapy 
  • Biological Therapy 

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S
Sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disease in which the shape of the red blood cells get chanced. Round and flexible red blood cells carry oxygen in human body that easily pass through the blood vessels. But once sickle cell anemia sets in, it changes the shapes of the red blood cells into sickle like shapes. At the same time the red blood cells become sticky also. This condition hampers blood flow and creates trouble.

Symptoms

The common symptoms of Sickle cell anemia includes:

  • Anemia
  • Periodic episodes of pain
  • Swelling of hands and feet
  • Recurring infections
  • Delayed growth and puberty in children
  • Vision problems

Cause

Family history is the only cause that develops this disease. A child will have this disease if both the parents passes the sickle cell gene to the child. If only one sickle cell gene is passed to the child by any one parent then the child will become the carrier of this disease but will not get affected.

Diagnosis

Sickle cell anemia is determined through blood tests. For adults, blood is collected from vain but in case of babies and children blood is collected from finger of heel. The confirmatory blood test for this disease is conducted in case of new born babies also if the parents are carrying the gene.   

Treatment

Different types of medications are used to treat Sickle cell anemia. The drugs help reducing pain and crisis and improves blood flow. Some of these drugs also lower down the need of blood transfusions that increases chance of developing side infections.

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O
Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that starts in the cells that form bones. Osteosarcoma is common in the long bones  like that of legs or arms, but it can develop  in any bone. Rarely it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone. Osteosarcoma is often found in teenagers and young adults, but it can also affect other age groups too.
Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery and, sometimes, radiation therapy. 

Symptoms

  • Swelling near a bone
  • Pain in the bone or joint 
  • Bone breaks easily for no major reason

Causes and Risk Factors
It's not clear what causes osteosarcoma. Doctors know this cancer forms when something goes wrong in one of the cells that are responsible for making new bone. Some risk factors are the following:

  • Previous treatment with radiation therapy
  • Some bone disorders like Paget's disease of bone and fibrous dysplasia
  • Certain inherited or genetic conditions like hereditary retinoblastoma, Bloom syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome to name a few.

Diagnosis
Besides physical examination the diagnosis is based on the following:
I)    Imaging tests such as – X-ray, CT Scan,  MRI, PET, Bone scan
II)    Biopsy procedures include - Needle biopsy or Surgical biopsy

Treatment
Options to treat Osteosarcoma is Surgery, Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy.

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N
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

 

The condition occurs when the body produces too many abnormal lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.

Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, stomach ache, night sweats, weight loss, chest pain and loss of appetite.

Treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem-cell transplant or medication.

 

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in your lymphatic system, which is part of the body's germ-fighting immune system. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, white blood cells called lymphocytes grow abnormally and can form growths (tumors) throughout the body.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a general category of lymphoma. There are many subtypes that fall in this category. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma are among the most common subtypes. The other general category of lymphoma is Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Advances in diagnosis and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have helped improve the prognosis for people with this disease.

Symptoms

  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin
  • Abdominal pain or swelling
  • Chest pain, coughing or trouble breathing
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Unexplained weight loss

Causes

In most cases the cause of developing  non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is not known. It begins when one’s body produces too many abnormal lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. The excess of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes cause them to swell.

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma most often begins in the:

  • B cells. B cells are a type of lymphocyte that fights infection by producing antibodies to neutralize foreign invaders. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from B cells. Subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that involve B cells include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma.
  • T cells. T cells are a type of lymphocyte that  kill foreign invaders directly. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs much less often in T cells. Subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that involve T cells include peripheral T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

The patient’s treatment options depend on whether one’s non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from B cells or T cells.

Where non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma generally involves the presence of cancerous lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. But the disease can also spread to other parts of one’s lymphatic system. These include the lymphatic vessels, tonsils, adenoids, spleen, thymus and bone marrow.

Risk Factors

The following factors may increase the risk of getting non-Hodgkin's lymphoma -

  • Medications that suppress the immune system
  • Infection with certain viruses and bacteria. 
  •  Exosure to certain Chemicals
  • Older age

Diagnosis

  • Physical examination
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Imaging tests like CT Scan, MRI, PET CT
  • Lymph node biopsy test
  • Bone marrow test
  • Lumber puncture(Spinal Tap)

Other investigations may be ordered by the Oncologist to determine the sub type.

Treatment

There are several treatment options for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It will depend on the  types of cells involved or its aggressiveness.

If the patient’s lymphoma appears to be slow growing (indolent) and doesn't cause any and symptom, no treatment might be required right away. Instead, regular checkups to monitor the patient’s condition may be recommended.

If the disease is aggressive or causes signs and symptoms the treatment options may include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Engineering immune cells to fight lymphoma
  • Bone Marrow Transplant
  • Immunotherapy

 

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U
Uterine Cancer

Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer is the most common cancer occurring within a woman’s reproductive system. Most uterine cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. In uterine cancer healthy cells in the uterus change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, which can spread to other parts of the body.

Risk factors include being overweight and starting periods at an early age. Symptoms of this cancer include vaginal bleeding after menopause and bleeding between periods.

The main treatment is surgical removal of uterus. It may have to be followed by chemotherapy or radiation.

Types of Uterine Cancer

There are two major types of uterine cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma - This type include 80% of uterine cancers. It develops from cells in the endometrium. This cancer is commonly called endometrial cancer.
  • Sarcoma – This type of uterine cancer develops in the supporting tissues of the uterine glands or in the myometrium, which is the uterine muscle. Sarcoma accounts for about 2% to 4% of uterine cancers.

 

Causes

  • Being postmenopausal, or reaching menopause (after age 55)
  • A thickened wall lining (endometrial hyperplasia)
  • Never having children.
  • Starting periods early (before age 12)
  • Having high blood pressure or diabetes.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Family history of ovarian, uterine, or bowel cancer.

 

 

Symptoms

The most common symptom of uterine cancer is unusual vaginal bleeding,  particularly any bleeding after menopause. Other common symptoms include:

  • Heavier than usual periods or a change in your periods
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods
  • Periods that continue without a break.

Less common symptoms include:

  • A watery discharge from vagina
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Difficulty urinating or a change in bowel habit
  • Pain in the pelvic region

 

Diagnosis

Pelvic examination

Pap test

Endometrial Biopsy

Transvaginal ultrasound

Imaging tests like CT Scan, MRI

Dilation and curettage

Molecular testing of Tumor

 

Treatment

 

Surgery – such as hysterectomy or Lymph node removal

Chemotherapy

Hormone therapy

Radiation therapy

Immuno therapy

Targetted therapy

 

Prevention

 

Although there is no proven way to completely prevent uterine cancer, one may be able to lower the risk. These include:

  • Taking birth control pills
  • Using a progestin-secreting intrauterine device (IUD), which is a form of birth control.
  • Considering the risk of uterine cancer before starting HRT(Hormone Replacement Therapy). Using a combination of estrogen and progesterone for HRT may lower  the risk.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Regularly controlling blood sugar level

 

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P
Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer forms in the cells of the pancreas. It begins in the tissues of the pancreas — an organ in the abdomen that lies behind the lower part the stomach. Pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and produces hormones that help manage one’s blood sugar.

Usually this type of cancer is quite silent in the beginning and gets detected late. But it spreads rapidly. Treatment may include surgically removing the pancreas, radiation and chemotherapy.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer often don't occur until the disease is advanced.  The symptoms include -

  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  •  Weight loss
  • Yellowing of  skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Light-colored stools
  • Dark urine
  • Itchy skin
  • New diagnosis of diabetes or existing diabetes shoots up
  • Blood clots
  • Weakness

 

Causes & Risk Factors

It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer. There are some factors that may increase the risk of Pancreatic Cancer. These risk factors include –

  • Smoking and tobacco chewing
  • Diabetes
  • Chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Inherited gene mutation. 
  • Family history of pancreatic cancer
  • Obesity
  • Older age

 

Diagnosis

  • Imaging tests like CT scan, MRI and PET Scan
  • Biopsy
  • Endoscopic Ultra Sound
  • Certain blood tests

 

Treatment

Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

 

 

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B
Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the Basal Cells. It looks like a glossy white bump, or brown scaly patch and usually appears on face, neck or body parts that remain exposed in sunlight.

Symptoms

Basal Cell carcinoma develops the following symptoms:

  • A glossy white or skin color bump
  • A brown, black or blue lesion with dark spots 
  • A scaly patch with raised edge
  • A white scar like lesion

Cause 
The exact cause that may develop Basal Cell Carcinoma is not known. But over exposure to ultraviolet radiation of the sun or using tanning lamp and bed is identified as a cause to increase the chance of getting this disease. There can be other reasons that may help developing this conditions. The possible causes are: exposure to arsenic, immune supressing drugs, old age, fair skin, Radiation therapy and family history.   
Diagnosis 
Initially, to diagnose Basal Cell Carcinoma, doctors will physically check the patient and ask about the medical history. In case they are suspecting the disease they may order a skin biopsy. 
Treatment 
Treatment procedure of Basal Cell Carcinoma may vary depending on various factors like location, stage, and other factors.  Usually range of treatment includes: 

  • Surgery 
  • C and E or Curettage and electrodessication 
  • Radiation therapy 
  • Photodynamic therapy 
  • Topical treatment 
  • Freezing
  • Targeted drug therapy 
  • Chemotherapy 

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M
Malignant Hyperthermia

Malignant Hyperthermia
Malignant Hyperthermia is a condition that causes alarmingly high body temperature, stiff muscles and spasms with rapid heart rate. This occurs as a reaction of certain drugs used for anaesthesia. It is a critical disease which can be fatal if prompt attention and treatment is not available.  
Symptoms 
Symptoms of Malignant Hyperthermia can appear during anaesthesia or during the recovery stage shortly after a surgery. The common signs include: 

  • Severe rigid muscles 
  • Muscles spasm 
  • Abnormally high heart beat 
  • Extremely high temperature 
  • Excessive Sweating 
  • Patchy skin 

Cause
Malignant Hyperthermia is caused by a genetic disorder. The abnormal gene reacts adversely towards certain anaesthesia drugs. 
Diagnosis 
Malignant Hyperthermiais diagnosed by checking signs and symptoms during or after using anaesthesia drugs. To find out Malignant Hyperthermia susceptibility of a patient genetic testing and muscle biopsy test are done.  
Treatment 
Treatment of Malignant Hyperthermia includes: 

  • Medications to stop the symptoms and reactions 
  • Oxygen 
  • Body cooling with the help of ice pack, cooling mist, chilled intravenous. 
  • Extra fluid transfusion through IV line 
  • Other supportive care followed in an intensive care unit.  

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M
Malignant Melanoma

Malignant Melanoma
Malignant Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that develops in the pigment producing cells melanocytes. Although, most of the times it appears on the skin, rarely it occurs in the mouth,   eyes or the intestine also. Usually this disease develops on the skin of exposed body parts but sometimes it appears in the internal parts which never gets exposed. 
Symptoms 
Common signs of Malignant Melanoma include: 

  • Change in the color, size or look in an existing mole 
  • Developing a pigmented or unusual looking growth on the skin  

Cause 
Malignant Melanoma is caused by abnormal and uncontrolled growth of pigment producing cells in the body. Though the exact reason for getting this disease is not yet confirmed, doctors believe over exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and long history of sunburn using tanning lamps or beds may increase the risk of Malignant Melanoma. Family history and weakened immune system also aggravate the risk.    
Diagnosis 
To diagnose Malignant Melanoma, medical professionals take help of the following processes: 

  • Physical exam and considering medical history 
  • Removing a sample tissue and examining it in the lab. 

To assess the stage of the disease doctors may include the below mentioned tests: 

  • Lab test to determine thickness of melanoma
  • Sentinel node biopsy 
  • Imaging tests that include X-rays, CT scans and PET scans

Treatment 
In case of small melanoma that has not spread far surgery is the treatment that removes the melanoma. But if the disease spread beyond the skin the doctors order the following treatment procedures: 

  • Surgery to remove affected lymph nodes 
  • Immunotherapy 
  • Targeted therapy 
  • Radiation therapy 
  • Chemotherapy 
     

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M
Merkel cell carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma is a type of rare cancer in which cancer cells form in the skin. Long exposure in Sun and having a weak immune system are the risk factors. It usually affects aged persons. It appears on face, head or neck. Merkel cell carcinoma often appears as a single painless lump on sun-exposed skin. It tends to grow fast and spreads quickly to other parts of the body. Treatment options for Merkel cell depend on whether the cancer has spread beyond the skin.

Symptoms

The first sign of Merkel cell carcinoma is usually a fast-growing, painless tumor on  the skin. It may be skin-colored or red, blue or purple shade. Most Merkel cell carcinomas develop on the face, head or neck, but they can develop anywhere on the  body, even on areas not exposed to sunlight.

Causes

The cause of Merkel cell carcinoma is not yet known. Merkel cell carcinoma begins in the Merkel cells. Merkel cells are found at the base of the outermost layer of the skin. Merkel cells are connected to the nerve endings in the skin that are responsible for the sense of touch.

Risk Factors

  • Long exposure to sunlight
  • A weakened immune system 
  • History of other skin cancers 
  •  Older age
  • Light skin color


Complications

Even with treatment Merkel Cell Cancer rapidly spreads to other organs of the body like bone, lungs, liver or brain. Then it becomes fatal.

Diagnosis

It mainly includes physical examination, skin biopsy, imaging tests, sentinel node biopsy.

Treatment

Treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

 

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M
Myelofibrosis


Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a rare  type of bone marrow cancer that disrupts body's normal production of blood cells. Myelofibrosis causes extensive scarring in one’s bone marrow, leading to severe anemia that can cause weakness and fatigue. Myelofibrosis often causes an enlarged spleen. Myelofibrosis is considered to be a chronic leukemia — a cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues in the body. Treatment for myelofibrosis focuses on relieving symptoms.

Symptoms

Usually in the early stage symptoms are not much felt.

  • Feeling tired, weak or short of breath
  • Pain or fullness below the ribs due to an enlarged spleen
  • Easy bruising
  • Easy bleeding
  • Excessive night sweats
  • Bone pain
  • Fever

Causes and Risk Factors

Exact cause is not known. Several specific gene mutations have been identified in people with myelofibrosis. Some risk factors include:

  • Age (over 50years)
  • those having another blood disorder
  • exposure to certain chemicals 
  • exposure to radiation


Diagnosis

Certain blood tests, imaging tests and bone marrow test

Treatment

The focus of the treatment is to provide relief from signs and symptoms of the disease like excessive anemia, enlarged spleen. For some, a bone marrow transplant may provide a chance for a cure, but this treatment is not suitable for many patients.

 

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N
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma


Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (called NPC) is a tumor of the head and neck which originates in the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is located at the very back of the nose. 

It is difficult to detect early. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of two.

Symptoms

In its early stages it may not show up any symptom. The following symptoms may occur  later:

  • A lump in the neck caused by a swollen lymph node
  • Headache
  • Blood in your saliva
  • Bloody discharge from your nose
  • Nasal congestion or ringing in your ears
  • Hearing loss
  • Frequent ear infections
  • Sore throat

Causes and Risk Factors

What causes Nasopharyngeal Cancer is not established. But there are the following risk factors:

Age (more affected in the age group 30- 50), Sex(More common in male), family history, use of tobacco and alcohol.

Diagnosis

Nasal endoscopy, biopsy, MRI, PET CT

Treatment

Treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually begins with radiation therapy or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy. Surgery is also required in some cases.

 

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N
Neuroblastoma


Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a type of carcinoma that commonly develops in the adrenal gland on top of the kidneys. It also appears in the chest, neck, stomach, pelvis and the bones. Most of the times children aged 5 or less gets affected by this disease as itoccurs in immature nerve cells. 

Symptoms

Symptoms of Neuroblastoma in abdomen includes:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Hard mass developed under the skin
  • Changes in bowels habit
  • Chest pain

Symptoms of Neuroblastoma in chest includes: 

  • Chest pain 
  • Wheezing 
  • Drooping eyelids or unequal pupil size

Some other symptoms include:

  • Protruding eyeballs 
  • Dark circle around the eyes 
  • Weight loss 
  • Back and bone pain
  • Fever
  • Cause 

The cause of genetic mutation that leads to Neuroblastoma is not known. Babies have someneuroblasts or immature nerve cells that develops into nerve cells and fibres and form adrenal glands or just disappear in natural course. But some unknown causes influence the immature nerve cells grow abnormally that form tumours.  

Diagnosis 

To diagnose Neuroblastoma doctors use the following tests and procedures: 

  • Physical check up 
  • Urine and blood tests 
  • Imaging tests 
  • Biopsy of tissue in the surrounding area
  • Biopsy of bone marrow

Treatment

Treatment of Neuroblastoma depends on various factors like age of the child, stage of the disease, type of cells involved in the disease. Doctors also assess if there is any genetic abnormalities. 

The common treatment process include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Bonemarrow transplant
  • Immunotherapy     

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R
Rhabdomyo Sarcoma

Rhabdomyo Sarcoma
Rhabdomyo sarcoma (RMS) is a rare category of cancer that develops  in soft tissue — specifically skeletal muscle tissue or sometimes hollow organs such as the bladder or uterus. It can occur at any age, but it mostly affects children.
Treatment depends on the type of Rhabdomyo sarcoma, the location, tumor size and whether it has spread. Treatment is usually a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Symptoms
Symbols depend on the location of the affected  area.
For Head & Neck : Headache, eye swelling, bleeding from the nose.
For urinary or reproductive system: Trouble urinating, bleeding, problem with bowel movement, mass or bleeding in Vagina or rectum.
For arms and legs: Swelling  or lump in the leg or arm, pain.
Causes and Risk Factors
The causes of this cancer is still not known. Some of the risk factors are the following:
Family history of cancer

  • Genetic syndrome
  • Diagnosis 

Imaging tests like – X Ray, CT Scan, MRI, PET Scan, Bone scan and biopsy.


Treatment
Treatment for Rhabdomyo sarcoma involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.
 

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S
Sheath Tumor


Sheath Tumor

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor or MPNST is a type of tumor that occurs in the cell that forms the sheath which covers and protects the peripheral nerves. It is a rare type of sarcoma that grows in the soft tissues, ligaments, tendons, blood vessels and lymph that support and connect a human body. It spreadquickly and easily affect other body parts. 

Symptoms 

The Symptoms of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumorincudes: 

  • Pain in the affected area
  • Swelling or lump 
  • Weakness in moving the affected body part

Cause

The exact cause of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor is not known. But there can be a higher chance of getting this disease in the following conditions: 

  • History of radiation therapy 
  • Existence of non-cancerous nerve tumor in the body 
  • Inherited health condition that increases the chance of MPNST. 

Diagnosis 

To diagnose Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor  doctors usually prescribe the following tests: 

  • Neurological Examinations
  • Imaging Tests 
  • Biopsy

Treatment 

Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor involves one or more combination of the following therapies. 

  • Surgery 
  • Radiation therapy 
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Post-surgery care and rehabilitation

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U
Ureteral Cancer


Ureteral Cancer

Ureteral cancer is a rare cancer which indicates an abnormal growth of cells on the inside lining of the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder. Ureters are part of the urinary tract, and they carry urine produced by the kidneys to the bladder. 

Older adults and people who had bladder cancer in the past, mostly develop this. People diagnosed with ureteral cancer have an increased risk of bladder cancer. Treatment options for ureteral cancer include surgery in certain situations, chemotherapy or immunotherapy.

Symptoms

  • Blood in urine
  • Back pain
  • Pain when urinating
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Fatigue

Causes

Like most of the cancers the cause of Ureteral Cancer is also not known, A rapidly growing mass of abnormal cells block the ureter or spread to other areas of the body.

Risk factors

  • Increasing age. 
  • History pf bladder or kidney cancer
  • Smoking

Diagnosis

  • Physical examination
  • Imaging tests like CT Urography
  • Urine test 
  • Ureteroscopy
  • Checking for bladder cancer

Treatment

The treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.

 

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B
Bone Cancer

Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the Basal Cells. It looks like a glossy white bump, or brown scaly patch and usually appears on face, neck or body parts that remain exposed in sunlight. 
Symptoms
Basal Cell carcinoma develops the following symptoms:

  • A glossy white or skin color bump
  • A brown, black or blue lesion with dark spots 
  • A scaly patch with raised edge
  • A white scar like lesion 

Cause 
The exact cause that may develop Basal Cell Carcinoma is not known. But over exposure to ultraviolet radiation of the sun or using tanning lamp and bed is identified as a cause to increase the chance of getting this disease. There can be other reasons that may help developing this conditions. The possible causes are: exposure to arsenic, immune supressing drugs, old age, fair skin, Radiation therapy and family history.   
Diagnosis 
Initially, to diagnose Basal Cell Carcinoma, doctors will physically check the patient and ask about the medical history. In case they are suspecting the disease they may order a skin biopsy. 
Treatment 
Treatment procedure of Basal Cell Carcinoma may vary depending on various factors like location, stage, and other factors.  Usually range of treatment includes: 

  • Surgery 
  • C and E or Curettage and electrodessication 
  • Radiation therapy 
  • Photodynamic therapy 
  • Topical treatment 
  • Freezing
  • Targeted drug therapy 
  • Chemotherapy 
     

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C
Cervical Cancer

Cervical  Cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cancer in India. Although it is preventable and treatable if detected early, but due to ignorance and lack of awareness it is widespread in underprivileged population. In the age group of 15-44 years it is more common. Early marriage is another factor responsible in countries like India.
Cervix is a part of a woman’s reproductive organ. It is the lower part of the Uterus and connects to the Vagina.  Abnormal growth of cells in the cervix leads  to Cervical Cancer. The  cancerous cells  can  spread to the inner tissues of the cervix and  affect the other parts of the body like vagina, rectum, abdomen etc which is known as Metastasis. 
In most of the cases Human Papilloma virus (HPV) brings about cervical cancer. But its growth is slow. Sometimes it takes a few years to appear. Regular Screening and timely treatment can save many lives.
Symptoms
In early stage there can be no symptoms. However some common symptoms are:

  • Painful Intercourse 
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Vaginal discharge / bleeding

In the advanced stage the following symptoms may occur:

  • Trouble urinating
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Renal failure
  • Leg swelling
  • Pain in the bones

Why it occurs?

  • Sex at  very early age (before 16) 
  • Having a number of partners
  • Repeated  full term pregnancy from early age
  • Prolonged use of oral contraceptives
  • Low immunity
  • Smoking
  • Those who suffer from STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease)

How to detect ?
Screening tests facilitates early detection to save life. These are:

  • Pap Smear test to screen for abnormal cells
  • If abnormal cells are found then Colposcopy (helps view the cancerous cells inside)  or biopsy is necessary.
  • HPV DNA  test collects cells from the cervix to detect infection by any type of HPV that are prone to cause cancer.
  • Imaging tests like Chest X ray, MRI, CT scan, PET scan etc throws light on the spread of the disease.                                                                                                            

Treatment options
A number of treatment options are available depending on the extent of spread of the disease. Normally one or more of the following treatment protocols are opted.

  • Cone biopsy:  A cone biopsy with wide margins is an effective option at the early stage. It preserves fertility.. 
  • Trachelectomy: This surgery also preserves fertility. A good option for early stage Cervical Cancer.  
  • Surgery:  A radical  and modified hysterectomy is one of the most  opted for procedure. 
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation is another common form of treatment. It is used either after surgery or without surgery. 
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is one of the most used treatment option. In many cases combined with surgery or radiation. It reduces  the risk of recurrence. 

Prevention
The Cervical cancer can be prevented by screening tests. If detected early it can be treated successfully and there is no loss of life. WHO aims at globally eradicating this disease altogether. With spread of more awareness and more screening tests annually the number of cases will reduced.
 

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C
Cokorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum  Some common symptoms include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss and fatigue. Colon cancer typically affects older adults, though it can happen at any age.  Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Symptoms

  • A  change in  bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of  stool
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in the  stool
  • Abdominal discomfort  such as cramps, gas or pain
  • A feeling that bowel doesn't empty completely
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss

Causes & Risk Factors

The cause is still unknown but there are some risk factors which include the following:

  • A history of colorectal polyps
  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions
  • Family history
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Excessive Alcohol intake

Diagnosis

  • Blood tests like measuring the CEA level in blood
  • Colonoscopy
  • Imaging Tests like CT scan for detecting the stage of the cancer spread

Treatment

Treatment options depend on the stage of the cancer. The treatment includes Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, targeted therapy, Immunotherapy.

 

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H
Head and Neck Cancer

“Head and neck cancer” is the broad term that describes different types of malignant tumors develop in or around throat, nose, sinuses, larynx or mouth. 
Types of head and neck cancer
Here are the 5 main types of head and neck cancer: 
Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. This type of cancer develops in the voice box which is called larynx. This organ plays an important role in breathing, talking, and swallowing. 
Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer. The nasal cavity is the location behind the nose. This is the passagethrough which air passes towards the throat. 
Nasopharyngeal cancer. This identifies aarcinoma developed in the nasopharynxor the air passageway. This area islocated at the upper part of the throat just behind the nose. 
Oral and oropharyngeal cancer. This particular type of cancer develops in the oral cavity which covers the mouth and tongue. The oropharynx cancer on the other hand, develops in the middle of the throat, which covers the entire area from the tonsils to the tip of the voice box. 
Salivary gland cancer. As the name suggests, it is the type of cancer that develops in the salivary gland which produces digestive fluid called saliva. 
There are several other types of cancer in the same head and neck region such as brain tumors, eye cancer, parathyroid cancer, sarcoma, esophageal cancer and thyroid cancer. But the diagnosis processand treatment is different for them. 

Symptoms
The symptoms and signs of Head and Neck Cancer include the following medical problems:  

  • Swelling or sore which never heals    
  • Fever with or without rash
  • Developing red or white patch in the mouth    
  • Double vision
  • Painless lump, or mass in the head and neck area    
  • Numbness of a part in the head and neck region
  • Continuous sore throat or cough    
  • Pain or difficulty in chewing or swallowing, 
  • Hoarseness or sudden change in voice    
  • Difficulty in moving the jaw or tongue and jaw pain
  • Nasal obstruction or never ending nasal congestion    
  • Blood in the saliva or phlegm, which is mucus discharged into the mouth from respiratory passages
  • Nasal bleedings or nasal discharge    
  • Loosening of teeth or Dentures that no longer fit
  • Difficulty in breathing    
  • Unexplained weight loss and Fatigue
  • Nausea    
  • Ear pain with infection

Diagnosis 

To confirm Head and neck Cancer a doctor is likely to prescribe endoscopy, MRI of head, CT of the sinuses, CT of head, Panoramic Dental X-ray, Dental Cone Beam CT, PET/CT and chest imaging. If the tests mentioned above cannot confirm carcinoma and the doctor still finds abnormality and persisting complications a biopsy is usually recommended.

Treatment

The type of treatment to be followed mostly depends on the type of the cancer, the size of the tumor and the location where it is developed. How fast the tumor is growing and what is the general health condition of the patient these factors also determines the line of treatment.
Usually, head and neck cancers are treated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery which may vary from person to person. 
 

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L
Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngeal Cancer is one of the ten leading causes of Cancer in men in India. It belongs to the broad category – Head & Neck Cancer. In this disease cancerous cells form in the larynx or voice box located in the throat. Laryngeal cancer damages one’s voice if  not diagnosed in time and the survival rate also depends on timely diagnosis. It may spread to nearby areas like thyroid, trachea, esophagus or to the lymph nodes in the neck, chest, carotid artery, upper part of the spine or lungs.                                                 Use of tobacco products and smoking are mostly responsible.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Symptoms

  • Broken or hoarse voice
  • Sore throat
  • Persistent cough
  • Ear pain
  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • Frequent chocking while eating
  • Neck pain
  • Swelling in the neck
  • Lump or growth on the neck
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Abrupt weight loss

Causes

  • Excessive drinking
  • Addiction to smoking and tobacco use
  • Mal nutrition
  • Exposure to Human Papilloma  Virus(HPV)
  • Low Immunity 
  • Professional hazards like exposure to toxic chemicals at work
  • Some specific genetic diseases
  • Family history

Diagnosis

  • Physical examination of throat and neck by the doctor
  • Biopsy
  • Laryngoscopy
  • Endoscopy
  • CT Scan
  • MRI
  • PET Scan
  • Bone scan

Treatment
Treatment options depend on the stages of the disease and condition of the patient. The chances of recovery also rests on the factors like patient’s age, general health condition, the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease. Usually the following  treatment options are available:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy

Rehbilitation
After completion of surgery and treatment the patients who have lost the voice altogether requires different speech therapies depending on their needs and regular counseling for rehabilitation. Some of these are – esophageal speech technique, voice production devices. Rehabilitation is an important part of the follow up treatment.
Prevention 
In order to reduce the risk of Laryngeal Cancer lifestyle changes are necessary.

  • Discarding smoking  and tobacco use in any form
  • Drinking in moderation
  • To take proper safety measures if exposed to toxins at work
  • To eat antioxidant-rich healthy  foods
     

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L
Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer
Cancer developed in the liver is called liver cancer. Abnormal and very quick growth of cells in the liver tissues create this condition. This type of cancer shows no symptoms in the early stage.
Symptoms
Liver cancer remains extremely silent in the initial stage. It shows no sign at all. But once the liver becomes swollen the following symptoms may be noticed:

  • A lump is found just below the rib cage.
  • Pain on the right part of the abdomen.
  • Jaundice 
  • Unusual and rapid weight loss.
  • Nausea and loss of appetite.
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal bloating.

Cause
Liver cancer is caused by the changes in the DNA of the liver cells.  This change develops abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the tissues of liver that form a tumour.
People suffering from chronic hepatitis may develop liver cancer. But most of the times why it happens to people with no such underlying diseases is not yet known.  
Diagnosis
If liver cancer is suspected, a doctor is likely to order the following lab tests:

  • Blood tests
  • Ultrasound 
  • Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI
  • Angiogram 
  • Laparoscopy 
  • Biopsy

Treatment
The treatment process of Liver cancer may depend on various factors like at what stage the cancer is and the general health conditions of the patient. 
Often, one or more treatment methods are used that include:   
Surgical methods: Removal of part of the liver or liver transplant.
Ablation therapy: Destroying the tumour inside the patient’s body without taking them out. 
Chemotherapy: Using medications that kill cancerous cells and control their growth.
Targeted Therapy: This is different from Chemotherapy. The drugs used in this method zero in on the cancerous genes and tissues. 
Immunotherapy: this process involves medicines that direct body’s immune system to kill the cancerous cells.    
Loco regional therapy: In this method beads are injected into the patient’s body that give off radiation and destroy the blood vessel that helps nourishing the tumour.   
 

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O
Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a growth of cells that forms in the ovaries. Ovaries are female reproductive organs on each side of the uterus. They produce eggs (ova) as well as estrogen and progesterone hormones. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread in the pelvis and elsewhere. In the early stage in most of the cases symptoms do not show up. At the late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and can be fatal. Ovarian Cancer is usually treated by surgery and chemotherapy.

Symptoms

Symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  • Bloating or swelling in the abdomen
  • Pain in the back
  • Abrupt  weight loss
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Quickly feeling full when eating
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Changes in bowel habits

Types of ovarian  cancer
There are a few types of Ovarian Cancer which include:

Epithelial ovarian cancer - This is the most common type which has  several subtypes, including serous carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma.
Stromal tumors - These tumors though quite rare can be diagnosed at an earlier stage than other types of ovarian cancers.
Germ cell tumors -  A  rare type of ovarian cancers that occurs at a younger age.

Risk Factors

Like any other cancer the exact cause of ovarian cancer is not known. Some risk factors are;

Ageing - It's most often diagnosed in older adults.
Inherited gene changes  - In some cases ovarian cancer occur due to gene changes that one inherits from parents or other blood relatives.
Obesity - Being overweight increases the risk.
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy - Hormone replacement therapy that controls menopausal  symptoms may enhance the risk.
Endometriosis - Endometriosis , a painful disorder sometimes may cause growth of tissue outside the uterus.
Age when menstruation started and ended. Beginning menstruation at an early age or menopause at a later age, or both, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
No pregnancy throughout life - If a woman has  never been pregnant it may increase the risk.
Diagnosis

  • Pelvic exam  by the Gynaecologist
  • Imaging tests - like USG, CT scan
  • Blood tests

Treatment
Ovarian cancer treatment  usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Other treatments are also followed.

Surgery
Operations to remove ovarian cancer include:

Remove one ovary – if the disease is at early stage. It will not deprive a woman to be pregnant.
Remove both ovaries - If cancer is present in both the ovaries, but has not spread elsewhere. Since the uterus remain intact, one may still give birth using one’s own frozen eggs or from a donor.
Removal of both ovaries and uterus - If your cancer is more extensive
Surgery for advanced cancer -  If the disease is in an advanced stage, it will require removal of as much as cancerous cells possible. Sometimes chemotherapy is ordered before or after surgery in this situation.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy drugs can be injected into a vein or taken by mouth.

Targeted therapy
Targeted drug treatments focus on specific weaknesses present within cancer cells. By attacking these weaknesses, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die.

Hormone therapy
Hormone therapy is a treatment option for some slow-growing ovarian cancers. This option also aim at stopping the recurrence.

Hormone therapy uses drugs to block the effects of the hormone estrogen on ovarian cancer cells. Some ovarian cancer cells use estrogen to help them grow, so blocking estrogen may help control the cancer.

Immunotherapy
It involves the immune system to fight cancer. Immunotherapy might be useful for treating ovarian cancer in certain cases.

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R
Rhabdomyo Sarcoma

Rhabdomyo Sarcoma

Rhabdomyo sarcoma (RMS) is a rare category of cancer that develops  in soft tissue — specifically skeletal muscle tissue or sometimes hollow organs such as the bladder or uterus. It can occur at any age, but it mostly affects children.

Treatment depends on the type of Rhabdomyo sarcoma, the location, tumor size and whether it has spread. Treatment is usually a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Symptoms

Symbols depend on the location of the affected  area.

For Head & Neck : Headache, eye swelling, bleeding from the nose.

For urinary or reproductive system: Trouble urinating, bleeding, problem with bowel movement, mass or bleeding in Vagina or rectum.

For arms and legs: Swelling  or lump in the leg or arm, pain.

Causes and Risk Factors

The causes of this cancer is still not known. Some of the risk factors are the following:

  • Family history of cancer
  • Genetic syndrome

Diagnosis

Imaging tests like – X Ray, CT Scan, MRI, PET Scan, Bone scan and biopsy.

Treatment

Treatment for Rhabdomyo sarcoma involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

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S
Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare group of cancers that occurs in different body parts like muscles, bones and also in the deep layers of skin. It can develop in body fat also. Other areas where this type of cancer can form are blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues. 
This is found both in children and adults.
Symptoms
The common sign of soft tissue sarcoma includes: 

  • A lump without pain. 
  • Stomach pain, bleeding, or a blocked intestine (if it occurs in belly). 
  • Chest pain or trouble in breathing (if it occurs in lungs or chest).
  • A painless growth on head or neckin children. 
  • Black stool or bloody stool. 
  • Lump is growing and developing pain.

Causes
The causes that develops this types of cancers is not yet identified. But the following factors are believed to increase the chances of having it:
Family historyof neurofibromatosis and Gardner syndrome
After effect of chemicals like arsenic, and vinyl chloride, or dioxin.
Exposure to radiation, even if it happens during treatment prescribed for cancer in other organs.
Diagnosis
Initially a doctor will closely examinethe lumps. If Soft Tissue Sarcoma is suspected the patient will be recommended to go through certain imaging tests like:  
X-rays, ultrasoundMRI scan or a biopsy. 
In case cancer is detected the doctor determine the stage of the cancer depending on the size of the lump and how far it has affected other parts of the patient’s body
Treatment
If cancer has not spread to other organs, usually, surgery is ordered in most of the cases. In this line of treatment, thetumorsare taken out without harming other healthy tissuessurrounding that area. 
But if surgery is not possible to carry out for various factors the doctors may suggest Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy also.  
 

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O
Oral Cancer

Oral Cancer
Oral Cancer can occur in any part of the mouth. Cancerous cells grow in the tissues of one’s mouth. It usually appears as a sore, lump or patch that does not heal. It may begin in any region of the mouth – gum, tongue, palate, cheek, sinuses or pharynx. Oral Cancer is under the broad category of  cancer called Head and Neck Cancer. Several risk factors are responsible  like chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol  intake or Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
If it is detected at an early stage when it has not spread it can be cured but otherwise it is life threatening. Unfortunately most of the time it is detected in an advanced stage. Sometimes it comes to light during a dental check up. The treatment options are mainly surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy depending on the patient’s condition. 

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Excessive drinking of Alcohol
  • Chewing Tobacco or any form of Tobacco product
  • Age – it is mostly found   among people over 40 years
  • Family history
  • Gender – male population is more affected
  • Prolonged exposure to sun
  • Getting infected by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

The signs of Oral Cancer

  • Sore / thickening / lump  inside the mouth – gum, tongue, palate, cheek,  lips or any location which continues more than a fortnight.
  • Red or white patches inside the mouth
  • Bleeding  in the mouth abruptly
  • Pain or  numbness in a particular area of the mouth
  • Pain while chewing, swallowing, speaking, or moving the tongue
  • Chronic sore in the throat, or hoarse and changed voice
  • Ache in the ear region
  • Stiff and painful jaw movement
  • Sudden weight loss

Diagnosis

  • Physical exam - It is most important to look for the abnormality inside the mouth by a physical checking by the doctor or dentist.  The abnormalities can be many, like white patch, thickness, small growth or swollenness to name few.
  • Biopsy (removal of tissue for testing) When any  abnormality is found after physical checking some affected cells  are collected for laboratory investigation for diagnosis. 

After the detection of Oral cancer is diagnosed, some investigations are performed to determine the stage of the disease. It includes:

  • Small camera inspection in the throat - It  finds out whether cancer has spread beyond the mouth.
  • Imaging tests - Depending on the patient’s condition doctor may advise different imaging test to assess the spread of the disease. These are X-ray, CT, MRI and PET scan.

Stages of Oral  Cancer

  • Stage 1: When the tumor is 2 cm or smaller and the cancer has not spread. 
  • Stage 2: When the tumor is between 2-4 cm, but cancer has not spread to near by tissues.
  • Stage 3: The tumor is larger than 4 cm and has spread to near by tissues but not to other parts of the body.
  • Stage 4: Tumors can be of any size and the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment

Like any other cancer, the treatment depends on the diagnosis that determines the type, site and stage of the cancer. 
Surgery
In the early stages surgery is required to remove the cancerous tissues and lymph nodes. Some patients may require Maxillo facial surgery depending on the cancer site. 
Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy is also an important option of Oral Cancer treatment. In complicated cases a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is required.
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is required along with radiation therapy or surgery to kill the cancerous cells altogether. 
Targeted therapy
Targeted therapy can be effective in both early and advanced stages of  Oral cancer. Targeted therapy medicines stop the growth of cancer cells and their spread.

Prevention
Adopting a healthy life style can eliminate some of the risk factors.

  • Giving up smoking
  • Quitting any form of tobacco use
  • No prolonged stay in the sun
  • Well balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables
  • No excessive drinking of Alcohol
  • Maintaining  good oral hygiene
  • Regular check up with the dentist
  • Taking HPV vaccine
     

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Ravikant Dubey, the son of patient of prostrate operation, Pramod Kumar Dubey talks about his experience at AMRI Hospitals before, during and after the surgery of his father. He also thanks Dr Bastab Ghosh, MBBS, MS, MCh - Urology, Uro Oncology for performing the surgery with great success!

Pramod Kumar Dubey
kolkata

AMRI Hospitals Dhakuria | Patient Testimonial | Nandita Ghosh
 

Nandita Ghosh
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