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Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: Causes

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis (PVS) is a rare disorder that is typically present at birth. In this condition, the narrowing pulmonary valve opening, or stenosis, restricts the blood flow from the right chamber of the heart to the pulmonary arteries. Due to this, the pulmonary valve, which influences the flow of blood from the heart to lungs gets deeply impacted and causes pulmonary stenosis deformity.

 

The symptoms can be vary from mild to severe, and is usually detected at the time of a child’s birth. However, the condition may also occur in adults due to infections such as rheumatic fever or carcinoid syndrome.

 

Causes

The exact cause of PVS is not known but there are some factors behind the condition, such as improper development of the valve in the foetus during pregnancy. The disorder might also be caused due to a genetic anomaly.

 

The Anatomy of Normal Pulmonary Valve

During the development of the heart in a foetus, three thin pieces of tissue known as cusps are arranged in a circle that come together to form a healthy pulmonary valve. The valve opens with each heartbeat and regulate normal blood flow into the pulmonary artery, which directs the blood towards the lungs. The valve also prevents blood from flowing in backward direction into the heart’s right ventricle.

 

Condition of Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Sometimes, as a congenital problem, one or more cusps may develop too thick or turn out to be defective. In some cases, the cusps may not be able to separate from each other, causing a blockage in the valve and restricting the blood flow. Usually, doctors recommend undergoing mandatory tests to ensure a healthy heart.

In adults, PVS can occur as the complication of a chronic or prolonged illness that affects the heart. In few patients, implanting artificial valves leads to issues like rheumatic fever and carcinoid syndrome in the digestive system.

 

Rheumatic Fever- Adults who get infected with the streptococcus bacteria face difficulties due to injuries caused to the heart valves because of the virus.

Carcinoid syndrome- It is a severe condition in which a person may experience a combination of signs and symptoms, including stomach aches, diarrhoea, and flushing of the skin that occurs due to release of certain chemicals, serotonin and development of carcinoid tumour in the digestive system.

 

Risk factors

Specialists at AMRI Hospitals suggest that there are specific risk factors associated with PVS occurring in latter life due to medical procedures or illnesses, including:

Growth of Carcinoid Tumours

Rheumatic fever

Noonan syndrome

Pulmonary valve replacement